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EXPERIMENTAL IMPROVISATION PRACTISE AND NOTATION. by Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen This is a continuation of the previous large bibliography with
its more than 650 entries which ended with the publishing year
of 1999 (apart from some very few exceptions, please see note 1) in that text). This one solely
lists works and literature published from 2000 and on, while
newly discovered addenda to the other one are included there. If you are here for the first time or if you are doing a
general literature search, be sure to see the really large one
here. See some imagined FAQs here! In the event that an URL is no longer active, you may try
www.archive.com with its "wayback machine" which can in
some cases find old material, even after many years. Even though many entries are detailed, I've taken a more relaxed approach to this addenda list than
to the other bibliography. It aims less towards being
exhaustive, in the relative meaning of making sure I get all I
think may be important to some degree, not that exhaustiveness
really could exist in an absolute sense. There is much less
systematic search of databases etc.(see the remarks before
each category in the "Appendix" section in the large
bibliography). Therefore, those who search should even more
here not refrain from making their own investigations! It must also be noted that not only are databases better updated now than at the time of completion of the big bibliography, but they might have grown both more, bigger and more comprehensive. This could be an open field for further research, certainly also into materials dating before 2000. Readers are welcome to suggest new material (here), but I
reserve the right to decide about possible inclusion, with
views to both quality and the limitations of the scope of this
list (for instance, it deals exclusively with music). Items here appear with their category codes between
(parenthesis), distinguishing the new list from the old. CLASSIFICATION SURVEY This system has been employed for classifying the subjects (taken over from the 1945-1999 bibliography): A1. 13 representative
examples (annotated) A2.1. Some relevant
composers (Danish and
foreign). A checklist. A2.2. Some Danish and
anthologies/series/collections. A2.2.1 SELECTED PUBLISHED WORKS (new category) A3. Danish works. A4. Aural scores (both
foreign and Danish) B WORKS AND AURAL
SCORES HAVING BEEN
PUBLISHED IN EXTENSO,
BUT NOT AS INDEPENDENT
EDITIONS B1. Improvisation
recipes by students of
Aalborg University B2. Various works
published in Denmark B3. Various foreign
works B4. Aural scores (both
danish and foreign;
annotated) C: WORKS AND AURAL
SCORES, PARTS OF WHICH
HAVE BEEN QUOTED IN
PUBLICATIONS C1. Danish / publ. in
Denmark C2. Foreign D. UNPUBLISHED WORKS
AND AURAL SCORES D1. Various works -
Danish and foreign D2. An annotated
compositions by Niels
Viggo Bentzon available
at Edition Wilhelm
Hansen E1. General and large
writings E2. Specific themes E3. The "Bent Lorentzen
- debate" 1987-88 F. COLLECTIONS OF
EXERCISES, WRITINGS AND
MUSIC WORKS FOR
EDUCATIONAL USE F1.1 Collections of
exercises and related
writings F1.2 Lilli Friedemann F1.3 Gertrud Meyer-Denkmann F2 Miscellaneous
writings F3 Music works for
collections of such
works and series G. WRITINGS ON
IMPROVISED MUSIC G1.1 General surveys
and general history G1.2 Periodicals,
specialised G1.3 Periodicals,
general G2.1 Documentation,
reports and discussion
tendencies G2.2 Stockhausen G2.3 Zorn G2.4 Earle Brown's
December 52 G2.5 Wolff G3 General philosopy,
theory and music
analysis G3.1 Improvised performance practise related to experimental and new works G4 Psychology G5 Miscellaneous
writings H. OTHER WRITINGS. H1 General accounts of
music history, dealing
thoroghly with themes
concerning new notation
H2.1 Bibliographic and discographic
recipes I2. Free
addresses J1.2: On
Strategies on the
internet J2. CD-ROM K.EXHIBITIONS OF
CATALOGUES a) Copied
(1986B;E1) b) Some
catalogues L. EDDIE
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. ADDENDA 2000-
Newsletter with feeds and editorial digest a couple of times a year:
Archive of Newsletters
VARIABLE WORKS AND
A. EDITIONS OF WORKS AND AURAL SCORES
E. WRITINGS ON NOTATION
H2.1.1 Publisher's catalogues
H2.2 Biographcal literature
H3.1 Literature on music therapy
H3.2 Writings related to the teaching of Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation at Aalborg University and other places
H4 Miscellaneous other writings
RECORDINGS (only a restricted category here)
M. A SHORTLIST OF RECOMMENDED WRITINGS
EXPERIMENTAL IMPROVISATION PRACTISE AND NOTATION.
by Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen
This is a continuation of the previous large bibliography with its more than 650 entries which ended with the publishing year of 1999 (apart from some very few exceptions, please see note 1) in that text). This one solely lists works and literature published from 2000 and on, while newly discovered addenda to the other one are included there.
If you are here for the first time or if you are doing a general literature search, be sure to see the really large one here.
See some imagined FAQs here!
In the event that an URL is no longer active, you may try www.archive.com with its "wayback machine" which can in some cases find old material, even after many years.
Even though many entries are detailed, I've taken a more relaxed approach to this addenda list than to the other bibliography. It aims less towards being exhaustive, in the relative meaning of making sure I get all I think may be important to some degree, not that exhaustiveness really could exist in an absolute sense. There is much less systematic search of databases etc.(see the remarks before each category in the "Appendix" section in the large bibliography). Therefore, those who search should even more here not refrain from making their own investigations! It must also be noted that not only are databases better updated now than at the time of completion of the big bibliography, but they might have grown both more, bigger and more comprehensive. This could be an open field for further research, certainly also into materials dating before 2000.
Readers are welcome to suggest new material (here), but I reserve the right to decide about possible inclusion, with views to both quality and the limitations of the scope of this list (for instance, it deals exclusively with music).
Items here appear with their category codes between (parenthesis), distinguishing the new list from the old.Don't forget to look up the "see also" references at the beginning of thematic sections - one writing may have several virtues ;-)
This system has been employed for classifying the subjects (taken over from the 1945-1999 bibliography):
A1. 13 representative examples (annotated)
A2.1. Some relevant independently published composers (Danish and foreign). A checklist.
A2.2. Some Danish and foreign anthologies/series/collections.
A2.2.1 SELECTED PUBLISHED WORKS (new category)
A3. Danish works.
A4. Aural scores (both foreign and Danish)
B WORKS AND AURAL SCORES HAVING BEEN PUBLISHED IN EXTENSO, BUT NOT AS INDEPENDENT EDITIONS
B1. Improvisation recipes by students of Aalborg University
B2. Various works published in Denmark
B3. Various foreign works
B4. Aural scores (both danish and foreign; annotated)
C: WORKS AND AURAL SCORES, PARTS OF WHICH HAVE BEEN QUOTED IN PUBLICATIONS
C1. Danish / publ. in Denmark
D. UNPUBLISHED WORKS AND AURAL SCORES
D1. Various works - Danish and foreign
D2. An annotated selection of compositions by Niels Viggo Bentzon available at Edition Wilhelm Hansen
E1. General and large writings
E2. Specific themes
E3. The "Bent Lorentzen - debate" 1987-88
F. COLLECTIONS OF EXERCISES, WRITINGS AND MUSIC WORKS FOR EDUCATIONAL USE
F1.1 Collections of exercises and related writings
F1.2 Lilli Friedemann
F1.3 Gertrud Meyer-Denkmann
F2 Miscellaneous writings
F3 Music works for educational use, collections of such works and series
G. WRITINGS ON IMPROVISED MUSIC
G1.1 General surveys and general history
G1.2 Periodicals, specialised
G1.3 Periodicals, general
G2.1 Documentation, reports and discussion concerning specific improvisors, groups, works, events, tendencies
G2.4 Earle Brown's December 52
G3 General philosopy, aesthetics, music theory and music analysis
G3.1 Improvised performance practise related to experimental and new works
G5 Miscellaneous writings
H. OTHER WRITINGS.
H1 General accounts of music history, dealing thoroghly with themes concerning new notation forms and/or improvisation
H2.1 Bibliographic and discographic
I1. Variable works and music played from recipes
I2. Free improvisations
J. ELECTRONIC ADDRESSES AND RELATED
J1.1. Selected internet addresses
J1.2: On Brian Eno's Oblique Strategies on the internet
K.EXHIBITIONS OF NEW NOTATIONS AND THEIR CATALOGUES
a) Copied from Davies (1986B;E1)
b) Some further exhibitions and catalogues
CONCERNING LIBRARIES (abbreviations used and various information)
AEST: Æstetikbiblioteket, Langelandsvej 139, 8000 Århus C, Bygning 582. Open shelves. Contents can be seen from the internet - see J1.1.
AUB: Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek, Langagervej, 9220 Aalborg Øst. Open shelves. Contents can be seen from the internet - see J1.1.
AUM: Institutbiblioteket for Musik og Musikterapi, Kroghstræde 6, Aalborg Universitet. No public loans.
BRIT.LIBR.: British Library, London. Contents can be seen from the internet - see J.
DKDM: Det Kgl. Danske Musikkonservatorium, København. A substantial part of the collection on open shelves. In the year 2000, an registration was started (CDs first), becoming available in REX (see Kgl. Bibl. under J).
DKDM+D: Same, recording matching the entry exists also.
EM: Esbjerg Musikkonservatorium. Open shelves. No public loans.
FRBMB: Frederiksberg Musikbibliotek.
GLHB: Gladsaxe Hovedbibliotek.
HB: Hovedbiblioteket, København. Open shelves, however, literature of earlier dates in stores.
IMD: Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt, Nieder-Ramstädter Strasse 190, D-64285 Darmstadt, tel. +49 (0)6151 13-2416 eller +49 (0)6151 13-2417. Special library for new music. Accessible for persons according to arrangement. Possible to obtain loans via post, also internationally.
KB: Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Kbh. [Royal Library, Copenhagen]. Contents in the database REX, also on the internet, see under J.
LOGOS: Logos Music Archives, Kongostraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Library and archive for experimental music. Periodicals are indexed so that one can search them according to keywords etc. Contains also a number of unpublished music works.
MI: Musikvidenskabeligt Institut ved Københavns Universitet. Open shelves.
MKAR: Musikkonservatoriet, Århus. No public loans. Open shelves. Contents acquired from the year 1990 can be seen in an internal database, before that time on catalogue cards.
MVAR: Håndbiblioteket. Musikvidenskabeligt Institut, Langelandsvej 139, bygning 580, 8000 Århus C.
NJMK: Nordjysk Musikkonservatorium. Open shelves. Internal database.
OUB: Odense Universitetsbibliotek. Situated at the Conservatory of Music. A limited selection on open shelves. Contents can be seen in Odin, see J.
SB: Statsbiblioteket, Århus. Public loan. Contents can be seen from the internet - see J.
ÅB: Århus hovedbibliotek.
DR: Danmarks Radio, internal library.
VARIABLE WORKS AND AURAL SCORES
A. EDITIONS OF WORKS AND AURAL SCORES
A2.2. Some Danish and foreign anthologies/series/collections.
(a2.2.1) SELECTED PUBLISHED WORKS (new category, not in the pre-2000 list)
(a2.2.1)/ Ames, Anke: Bast Siegel, Dortmund (Musikverlag Manfred Weiss) 2005.
For music and dance. 40 sheets, some of them in colours. Texts in English and German.
(a2.2.1)/ Broetzmann, Peter: Signs. A card game, 2002.
A collection of cards in a box with various fantasy-stimulating suggestions. Made for an exhibition at Ystad Art Museum, Sweden in a number of 120 copies. Contact email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A2.2. SOME DANISH AND FOREIGN ANTHOLOGIES/SERIES/COLLECTIONS.
(a2.2)/ See also: Bergstroem-Nielsen (2007;G3) - Sauer (2009;(E1))
(a2.2)/ See also Gronemeyr et al (2007; g1.2)
(a2.2)/ Stockhausen, Karlheinz; von Hintzenstern, Michael: Booklet for Stockhausen Complete Edition CD 17.1, 2005.
This booklet contains reprints of 6 out of the 17 pieces notated with texts contained in the collection For Times to Come (1970, publ. 1976): Shortening - Awake - Halt - Presentiment - Inside - Waves. Also a short article by Michael von Hintzenstern on the history of this ensemble, the collaboration with Stockhausen over the years and a report of the work preceding these recordings.
(a4)/ Damgaard, Lisbeth: Aural score for Pade, Else Marie: Symphonie Magnetophonique (1958), in: Bruland, Inge: Else Marie Pade og Symphonie Magnetophonique. biografi, interviews, lyttepartitur, partitur, cd, Museum Tusculanum Press (University of Copenhagen)
B WORKS AND AURAL SCORES HAVING BEEN PUBLISHED IN EXTENSO, BUT NOT AS INDEPENDENT EDITIONS
B3. VARIOUS FOREIGN WORKS
(b3)/See also ringgespräch (2004; (G2.1)).
(b3)/ la Barbara, Joan: "Voice piece: one-note internal
resonance investigation" (1975) and "Circular Song". In:
MusikTexte 116, p.6-7, February 2008.
Two pieces exploring extended vocal techniques notated with verbal and graphical means.
(b4)/ Bremberg, Brita; Kruse, Gro Shetefig; Nielsen, Mette Stig:
Listen to Scandinavia, Copenhagen, Edition Wilhelm Hansen 2007.
The electronic music by Bent Lorentzen comes with an aural score by the composer.
C: WORKS AND AURAL SCORES, PARTS OF WHICH HAVE BEEN QUOTED IN PUBLICATIONS
(c2)/ See also ringgespräch (2004; G2.1); Nonnenmann (2010; G2.1); Spahlinger (2015;g2.1)
D. UNPUBLISHED WORKS AND AURAL SCORES
(d1)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Ohne Titel" [posthumous - für Kontrabasquartett und Ensemble (2001)], MusikTexte 99, Dezember, 2003.
A plan to play from. Wilson was both musician and writer about improvised music.
E. WRITINGS ON NOTATIONRead an introduction to literature about notation here. If this link does not work, click here.
(e1)/ Ashwal, Gary; Malsbury, Evan; Chung Soojin; Prajapati, Sheetal; Feldman, David; Welch, Samsurin; Mikyung Kim, Eugene: Pictures of Music . http://www.blockmuseum.northwestern.edu/picturesofmusic/index2.html
A general web presentation of a number of American and some European composers' graphic works.
(e1)/ Cox, Christopher: Every Sound You Can Imagine. Programme booklet for the exhibition at Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2008. ISBN 978-1-933619-15-6. Also online at IIMA: http://www.intuitivemusic.dk/iima/cox_es.htm.
This short article brings to light some important aspects of the role of notation in Western music culture. "...notation is a relatively recent invention in the history of music, as is the distinction between composition and performance" the author states. However, he goes back to the Middle Ages to point out that the role of notation initially was that of a "Mnemonic aid...that became ever more necessary with the introduction of multiple melodic lines". In later history, the market replaced courtly patronage, and written music became the answer to the need of the market for exchangeable objects and commodities (with the invention of printing as an important step, I am tempted to add). Copyright legislation pushed this development further. Staff notation became an international standard but later went into a crisis after mechanical reproducing means were invented. Some composers began to employ new sounds that could not be notated in the old system, and new electronic instruments were invented. During the same period, jazz became a part of Western culture, in which the score was considered "a mere sketch, a springboard for creative improvisation". Some composers with classical background saw experimental notation as a springboard for improvisation; some jazz composers saw it as a means to avoid chaos and competetive behaviour. A number of experimental scores were written from the 1950s and on. From the 1990s and on, the popularization of electronic music production together with video production revived the interest in notational experiments on a cross-aesthetic basis.
(e1)/ Cox, Christoph: "Die Partitur fliessen lassen. Die Geschichte der musikalischen Notation und die Arbeit des Klangkunst-Kollektivs "Grúpat"". MusikTexte 125, Mai 2010, p.51-57.
Comments to works by the "Grúpat" group are preceded by a historical overview of the role of notation in Western music.
Scores are special for Western culture; globally, oral culture is the norm. In the middle ages notation was employed as a memory aid. With capitalism, the market became the place for sustaining musicians economically instead of wealthy maecenas, and the score became an object that could be sold. - In this way, Cox ironically remarks, the score assumed a reputation as the basis of music, in a manner comparable to philosophical assumptions stating that "essences" are more fundamental than "phenomenons". Improvisation in real time became suppressed because of this development. With the advent of electronic reproduction technologies, the role of the score was strongly challenged, and at the same time, many new sounds became possible for musical use, not just tones and their combinations. This being so, and with jazz having become part of Western culture, there was a fruitful climate for the discovery of indeterminacy, experimental music, graphic scores and improvisation. Earle Brown employed 'indeterminate notation strategies' in order to revive improvisation among classical musicians. Free jazz composers like Anthony Braxton and Wadada Leo Smith, however, used scores in order to avoid chaos and competetive behaviour - the author sees Zorn's game pieces in this context, too.
While these phenomena were typical of the 1950s and 60s, the next historical change came about, according to the author, in the nineties. Cheap and portable computer technologies and the internet made information more sharable, also between art forms. In this new context, the score becomes a means for coordination of events. Instead of the old notion of 'synaesthesia' one could speak of 'metapher' and an interest in combining contrasting sensory experiences.
Since long, non-traditional scores have challenged both the concept of the musical work and that of copyright. Cox sees this as typical of the Grúpat collective and describes a number of their works. He also thinks that the idea of "flow", which is typical of the most recent historical phase, has become a theme in the works here.
(e1)/ Sauer, Theresa (ed): Notations 21, New York (Mark Batty Publishers), 2009. www.notations21.net
This anthology documents how the field of innovative non-traditional notations is strongly alive. Most of the notations quoted have been created after 2000, next comes the nineties, followed by the eighties, so there is no lack of proof of recent work being made. Cage (1969;A2.2) was the inspiration for this work - contemporary technique allows, however, for colours. Works, some of them entire ones, comments to works, short composers' biographies and articles providing personal thoughts by composers about the nature of their notations are included. Attempts at historical and systematical overview is not the focus here but the book might well inspire others to such endeavours (you may, in any case, consult Cox (2008:(E1)). A useful and inspiring collection for everyone interested and a must for libraries that have an interest in new music.
The following authors are represented (there are 165 authorships, that is, a few works have several authors): Victor Adan, Beth Anderson, Kerry John Andrews, Steve Antosca, Cecilia Arditto, Robert Ashley, Kevin Austin, Trevor Baca , Dennis Báthory-Kitsz, Steve Beck, Irene Becker , Cathy Berberiane, David Berezar, Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen , Philip Blackbourn, Benjamin Boretz, Sam Britton, Earle Brown, Herbert Brün, Ellen Burr, John Cage, Allison Cameron, Joe Catalano, Raven Chacon, Chris Chalfant, Jef Chippewa, Kyong Mee Choi, Henrik Colding-Jørgensen, Nick Collins, David Cope, Philip Corner, Brent Michael Davids, Tina Davidson, Mario Diaz de Leon and Jay King, Robert Denham, Halim El-Dabh, Robert Erickson, Pozzi Escot, Julio Estrada, Rajmil Fischman, Robert Fleischer, christopher cox, Bruce L.Friedman, Guillermo Galindo, Malcom Goldstein, Daniel Goode, Guillermo Gregorio, Barry Guy, Barbara Heller, Brian Heller, William Hellermann, Mara Helmuth, Sven Hermann, Christoph Herndler, Alan Hilario, Robin Hoffmann, Peter Hölscher, Tsai-yun Huang, Christoph Illing, Lynn Job, David Evan Jones, John Kannenberg, Suk-Jun Kim, Panayiotis Kokoras, Slavek Kwi, Joan la Barbera, JohnLane, Mark Langford, Hope Lee, Cheryl E. Leonard, Charlotte Lindvang, Anestis Logothetis, Bent Lorentzen, Martin Sebastian Loyato, Michael Maierhof, TYler Mains, Keerit Makan, Dan Marmorstein, Dimitris Maronidis, Tony Martin, Kate Maxwell, Cilla McQueen, Rajesh Menta, Ann Millikan, René Mogensen, Stephen Montague, Robert Morris, Gordon Mumma, Gaël Navard, Phill Niblock, Gary Noland, Makoto Nomura, Eoin O'Keefe, Pauline Oliveros, Vagn E. Olsson, Paul Paccione, Marianthi Papalexandri-Alexandri, Brice Pauset, Tommase Perego, Joe Pignato, Jonathan Pitkin, Samuel Pluta, Larry Polansky, Alwynne Pritchard, Anthony J.Ptak, Takyuki Rai, Randy Raine-Reusch, Jon Raskin, Henrik Ehland Rasmussen, Herman Rechberger, Will Redman, Wendy Reid, Steve Roden, Dirk Rodney, Keren Rosenbaum, David Rosenboom, Marina Rosenfeld, Daniel Rothman, Theresa Sauer, R.Murray Schafer, León Shidlowsky, Catherine Schieve, Daniel Schnee, Brian Schorn, Barry Schrader, Phillip Schulze, Michael J.Schmacher, Eliott Sharp, Marilyn Shrude, Stuart Saunders Smith, Juan Maria Solare, Mathias Spahlinger, Jack W. Stamps, John Stead, Norbert Stein, Hans-Christoph Steiner, Peter Sterk, Karlheinz Stockhausen, John Stump, Chiyoko Szlavnics, Yuji Takahasi, Justinian Tamusuza, John Tchicai, James Tenney, Voya Toncitch, Laura Toxvaerd, Jeffrey Treviño, Andrea Valle, J.Simon van der Walt, Ivan Vincze, Stephen Vitello, Doublas C. Wadle, Jennifer Walshe, Clive Wilkinson, Michael Winter, René Wohlhauser, Ge-Suk Yeo, David Young, Katherine Young and Jonathan Zorn, Judith Lang Zaimont, Edson Zampronha, Peter Zombola, Jonathan Zorn , Richard Carlyon, Philip and Gayle Neuman, Morgan O'Hara.
(e2)/ Anderson, Virginia: “Well, It's a Vertebrate …”: Performer Choice in Cardew's Treatise', Journal
of Musicological Research, 25: 3, 291 — 317, 2006. DOI: 10.1080/01411890600840578
The relation between Cardew's work as an assistant for Stockhausen and his own ideas for Treatise are examined here, on the basis of Cardew's own accounts of this. Treatise was, at least partially, born out of a reaction against the strictness of Stockhausens' Plus-Minus, felt by Cardew and some fellow players. Also receiving detailed examination are the performances of the work during Cardew's lifetime, using Treatise Handbook [see under e2 in the 1945-2000 section] which has a detailed list, but also original material from author's own contacts with involved persons. Various additional info is given - for instance that Treatise Handbook was written in response to a plea from the publishers (although no source for this is referred) - and that the compositions included in Treatise Handbook are realisations of pieces from Treatise. Also receiving detailed attention is the process which lead Cardew to abandon any explanations, away from his original intention to provide a set of symbols with comments.
(e2)/ Jahn, Hans-Peter: "Zur Qualität des Gedächtnisverlusts. Fesseln der Notation", MusikTexte 109, Mai, 2006.
One of the papers from the Notation Congress Berlin December 2005. The author makes the statement that playing from traditional notation presupposes loss of memory. This action sets the musician free to give shape to the music. Also many small free spaces appear, from one note to the next, creating "paradises of freedom". This is contrasted with the situation of improvising and its "sloppy regulations" (p.21). That which is notated is compared to a crash barrier on a motorway, whereas the music consists of all that which is not notated. This is contrasted to the situation of improvisation: "In improvisation there are no such crash barriers. There are only agreements and random happy moments of a musical logic, as well as the randomness of collectively composed cogency", p.21.
This is an interesting contribution to comparatively discussing characteristics of improvisation and composition, because the author sets forth a coherent view of what is the interpreter's co-creating role when playing from traditional notation. At the same time, there is analysis enough of elements of improvisation to yield substance to his discussion. An additional delight is the extraordinarily brilliant rhetorics.
One possible critical question to this article could be concerned with how small the free spaces have to be according to the author in order to be interesting? When do they cease to be "paradises" and instead become "sloppy"? This question seems important because so many experimental notations devise free spaces of many sizes, often bigger than traditional note-to-note ones while still maintaning something seemingly comparable to the "crash barrier" mentioned in the article - you may for instance think of Earle Brown, as well as of many others.
(e2)/ Lock, Graham: "What I Call a Sound": Anthony Braxton's
Synaesthetic Ideal and Notations for Improvisers, in: Critical
Studies in Improvisation (www.criticalimprov.com) vol.4, 2008.
Unfortunately, none of Anthony Braxtons' compositions are still published in writing, even though a large text (Heffley (1996;C2) comments them extensively, however without going very much into the notation. Through this text one can gain a little more insight into various signs he employs, which in many cases differ widely from one work to another.
(e2)/ Lukoszevieze, Anton: "Die Welt als Musik durchwandern. Der US-amerikanische Komponist Philip Corner", MusikTexte 99, Dezember, 2003.
Comments on graphic and verbal music works with several examples. P.C. got additional inspiration for his work with graphic notations during a stay in Korea.
(e2)/ Möller, Torsten: "Im Zeichen der Konsolidierung. Der Berliner Notationskongress 2005 - Notation zwischen Norm und Excess", MusikTExte 108, p.80,, 2006.
The author reports from a notation congress having a narrow focus centered on traditional notation and analyzes how this perspective might be widened out.
(e2)/ Möller, Torsten - Shim, Kunsu - Stäbler, Gerhard: SoundVisions, Saarbrücken (Pfau) 2005.
An inspiration for this book was the very classic book
Notations, compiled by John Cage (a2.2 1969). And in one of
several introductory articles preceding this collection of
notation samples, Paul Attivello deplores that new notations
of the Darmstadt generations were put aside by more
notation trends. Composers like Sylvano Bussotti, Aldo
Clementi, Franco Evangelisti, Roman Haubenstock-Ramati,
Mauricio Kagel, Anestis Logothetis and Dieter Schnebel
deserved more attention
according to this author. But despite these statements, this
book contains mostly music notated in the standard way,
sometimes with sketches being more interesting than final
results when seen from a visual aesthetic point of view. Some
exceptions, besides realisation scores from electronic music,
are instances of innovative notations by Anton Lukoszevieze
born 1956 (free
graphic notation), Alwynne Pritchard born 1968 (mobile), Yuji
Takahashi born 1938 (free graphic notation), as well as use of
optical notation by Vykintas Baltakas born 1972, Aldo Clementi born 1927
and a complete sound poem by Josef Anton Riedl born 1927.
There is no accounting for the criteria of selection of composers. As a catalogue of contemporary music quite generally this book could serve as a reference work or as a work for browsing through, with its inclusion of 153 living composers and biographical notes of each one. All editorial texts are in both English and German, and texts accompanying the composition samples are in English. But the reader seeking information about innovative notations is likely to be disappointed. See Sauer (2009;(E1)) for a very different collection!
(e2)/ Sørensen, Søren Møller: "Partituret lyver". Interview med Juliana Hodkinson. Autograf vol. 9/2, april 2000.
Interview with composer Juliana Hodkinson who makes performance practise an issue of experimentation in her compositions. This may lead to abandoning traditional forms of composers' control, such as conduction or a metrically defined tempo. She states her interest in the playing process in its own right despite seeming "imperfections" compared to the score. She also states a comparison with Japanese writing and spoken language in order to make clear how written/spoken forms do not simply mirror each other.
e2/ Trescher, Margret: "Cornelius Cardews "Treatise" und die Gruppe AMM", MusikTexte 86/87, November, 2000. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(e2)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Die weisse Leinwand. Notitzen zum Verhältnis von Bildender Kunst und improvisierte Musik" in: MusikTexte 100, Februar, 2004.
Deals among other things with action painting, giving ´inspiration to improvisors Phil Minton and Keith Rowe and with graphc scores, dealing with Cardew: Treatise as a prime example
(e2)/ Woolman, Mat: Sonic Graphics. Seeing sound, London (Thames and Hudson) 2000.
Deals with several kinds of visual design related to sound, among others CD covers. Music notation is touched upon in one chapter, quoting Paolo Motta and text compositions (with layout) by Stephen Montague (probably previously unpublished pieces in both cases).
F. COLLECTIONS OF EXERCISES, WRITINGS AND MUSIC WORKS FOR EDUCATIONAL USE
F1.1 COLLECTIONS OF EXERCISES AND RELATED WRITINGS
(f1.1)/ Ausländer, Peter: Experimentelles Musik- und
Tanztheater in der schulmusikalischen Praxis und in der
kulturellen Jugendarbeit, Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Spiel und
Theater NRW e.V, Vlotho 1997.
Includes a printing of the open composition PLAY III by Johannes Fritsch.
f1.1/ Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl: Intuitive Music - a Mini-Handbook. New online edition 2009ff here.
Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and a bibliography.
(f1.1)/ Hansen, Niels Chr.: Different Approaches to an Improvisational Practise based on the Piano Music of Toru Takemitsu". JMM, Journal of Music and Meaning vol.6, 2008, http://www.musicandmeaning.net/ With audio samples.
This project aims at establishing an improvisational practice for pianists based on the piano music of the Japanese composer Toru Takemitsu.
Through musical analysis of Takemitsu’s music we seek to point at different compositional practices that can be converted into concrete, pedagogical exercises to be used for teaching in improvisation. Some of the improvisational guidelines are then combined into a complete piece of music, which is subsequently evaluated and used as a basis for a discussion of the further perspectives of the project.
The practical experience so far suggests that this method can be used for:
* encouraging an improvisational approach to interpreting music,
* countering the fear of improvisation among the performers of classical music,
* strengthening the understanding of contemporary music,
* disseminating the knowledge of traditional Japanese music
— and last but not least the project implies the possibilities of creating an artistic musical product in itself.
(f1.1)/ Hall, Tom: Free Improvisation. A practical guide. Boston (Bee Boy Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-615-38862-1. www.freeimprovisation.com .
Some improvisors make soundscapes with many ever changing details, others use pulse and ostinatos. This collection of 124 exercises wanders between both approaches - roughly every other section makes a shift. Thus, the first one, "Beginning Exercises" starts out with sounds on a pulse and variations of this - a bit later some exercises also abandon the pulse, then we return to building up grooves from individual ostinatos. But "mirroring" and "ending" exercises which follow apply to any kind of improvisation. Next section features "Duets. The Art of Relationship" which is entirely about the players' free choices of music sounds, focusing awareness in different so as to make choices more conscious. Next section again is "Advanced Groove Exercises", etc. With its slight priority given to the pulse and groove-approach, the book could be compared to Stevens (f1.1; 1985), but is far more comprehensive. However, there are plenty of ideas for the other approach as well throughout. In such a pluralistic encompassing of the two approaches, there is both conflict potential and integrative potential. Perhaps the following statement takes account of this ("Tip", p. 31): "If you want to improvise in any other manner besides stream of consciousness, it is essential to be aware of the choices being made. Without a group awareness of these choices it's difficult to develop them, improvise with them, or refer back to them...".
The author has a strong sense of what musicians' awareness and focusing can do. Thus, for one example, the "Ending" exercises already mentioned work with uncovering "potential endings", the simplest form being to focus on that and stopping at the first one. Additional variants ("steps") involve several "endings" within one piece (must be general pauses...) and more choices. Also, the relationship aspects is the theme of many good proposals (other words for this could be group-dynamic or social aspects). "Duets. The Art of Relationship" were mentioned above. "Groups within the Group" is another essential aspect of free improvisation that deserves attention and certainly gets it in the eight exercises under this heading. They suggest, among other things, that smaller groups or solos simply occur during the improvisation without fixing when it will be.
The view of possible musical material in the book is a broad one taken in a pluralist sense, as suggested earlier when discussing the two different approaches to improvisation. It is good to have mention of such dimensions as "Creating Space - Playing Silence" and "Musical Parameters", but these are short and could invite so many further ideas. Likewise, a chapter of seven pages deals with "Textures", from the point of view of handling and repeating them, not with how actually to invent them. How to magine and combine individual sounds into textures, how to use instruments in interesting ways, etc. could be a theme of further explorations.
This work is nevertheless the exercise collection coming closest to my own one, Bergstroem-Nielsen ((f1.1); 2009ff) in its design and scope till now. It describes probably the differences between us that I would have put his Chapter Twelve, "Tasting Shapes", at the very beginning. This is about stimulating the playing fantasy by, among other, visual and verbnal means. Regardless, this book can be very useful to a wide field of improvisors and educational contexts.
To give a more detailed impression of the subject matters, here is a list of the chapters' titles - after some introductory texts aiming at encouraging beginners and at characterising the free playing way - : Beginning Exercises - Duets: The Art of Relationship - Advanced Groove Exercises - Textures - Creating Space - Playing Silence - Groups Within the Group - Melody and Accompaniment - Musical Parameters - Tasting Shapes - Combining Exercises - Warm-ups - Solo Exercises. An index of exercises can be found at the end.
(f1.1)/ Stenger-Stein, Gabriele: "Spontaneität und Wachsamkeit. Improvisation - als Weg und als Ziel? Improvisation im Instrumentalunterricht, i Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation, März, 2000.
A large collection of exercises included.
F2 MISCELLANEOUS WRITINGS
(f2)/ Rüdiger, Wolfgang; Gagel, Reinhard (ed.): Ensembleleitung neue Kammermusik. Dokumentation und Arbeitshilfe des Modellprojekts, Bonn (VdM Verlag - www.musikschulen.de) 2004.This book accounts for a "model project" undertaken by VdM - Association of German Music Schools - having the aim to set up a new in-service training programme.
(f3)/ Nomura, Makoto; Nankivell, Hugh: Whaletone Opera. A 21st
Century Musical Journey. With texts in both English and Japanese
and 3 CDs documenting one of the performances, Ogawara (Japan)
(Ezuko Hall - www. ezuko.com) 2007.
A large-scale work which was created with participants of varying ages. Both simple songs and recipes of improvised soundmaking following the drama appear. "Whaletone scale" is a variant of the wholetone one.
This book serves both as documentation of the performances and as a score for possible future performances initiated by readers. Instructions are, however, often of a sketchy kind, but there is enough flexibility to change them according to own ideas. Also, one can imagine the use of the book as inspiration for the readers' own projects, whether small or big.
G. WRITINGS ON IMPROVISED MUSIC
G1.1 GENERAL SURVEYS AND
(g1.1)/ Beck, Sabine: "Prinzipiell vielseitig. Vinko Globokar,
"New Phonic Art" und die Improvisation der sechziger und
siebziger Jahre", MusikTexte 115, November, 2007.
This article is a comparative study describing bvery clearly the different characteristics and ways of working of New Phonic Art, Nuova Consonanza, Musica Elettronica viva, AMM Music, Music Improvisation Company and the Scratch Orchestra - all well-known improvisation groups of the sixties and seventies.
(G1.1)/ Bergmark, Johannes: "What is improvisation and why improvise". Downloaded 16. June 2010 from www.bergmark.org/why.html
Considerations around how improvisation is viewed by musicians and about developments within jazz history. The author proposes that both totally predetemrinistic and the counterpart, totally indeterminate views are meaningsless. The essence of improvisation is not just pure intuition or accept of chance, nor is it the blind following of a psychic condition. In order to approach a better understanding of improvisation, one must consider the fact that both conscious decisions and intuitive elements are part of it.
Surrealism is an inspiration for Bergmark, and he quotes Davey Williams: "We do not need anybody to tell us what to dream. Why then should we have someone telling us what to play?" (no reference given).
The author also deals with the issue of ideology connected to free improvisation and states, among other things, that "there are people that think that the term "free improvisation" gives the impression that we proclaim ourselves as liberated... Unfortunately, this is considerably exaggerated..."
(g1.1)/ Jenkins, Todd S.: An Encyclopedia of Jazz and Free Improvisation, Westport, Conn. / London (Greenwood Press) 2004.
This work comprises 390 pages of
biographical and other information
related to free jazz and improvised
music. There are also introductory
overviews and chapters and a
The introductory chapter "The Path to Freedom" has a good, detailed account of new jazz developments from the American perspective, extending into European free music, making it an important writing on these parts of music history. Credit is also given to backgrounds in experimental composition, although probably with a few misunderstandings of the role of Cage who seems in practise to be rather unknown to the author - he states, for instance, that he used "aleatoric (chance) procedures such as hand signals or cue cards" (p.xxxiv)
(g1.1)/ Polaschegg, Nina: Verflechtungen. Zur Neubestimmung des
Verhältnisses von Komposition und Improvisation", MusikTexte 114,
In music history writing after 1950, two tendencies are usually attributed a paradigmatic role: on one hand, serialism and its counterreaction, and on the other hand aleatoric techiques and other strategies of opening up the work. "On one hand, these tendencies re-thought principal possibilities of the musical work in a radical way and appeared therefore necessary and revolutionary, but they have had no proper succession" (p.34). A view that sees them as the only ones suppresses or marginalizes the fact that they were only a part of the total picture of tendencies away from traditional concepts of music, musician and musical work. Improvisation played animportant role here, and there has been a continuous development ever since it was re-invented in the fifthies and sixties. For the first generation, improvisation was conceived of in terms of being a new discovery - be it in contrast to composition or as an extension of composition. The second generation views improvisation and composition as different aspects of one and the same music. This may also be named the second improvisation renaissance, of which improvising composers Richard Barrett, Wolfgang Mittlerer, Michael Maierhof, Karlheinz Essl and Bernhard Lang can be mentioned as representatives.
Various collective-like groupings were formed by composers of the first generation. At the same time, musicians from both new music and jazz genres strove towards re-inventing improvisation. Thus, such re-invention took place simultaneously in two cultures.
In order to understand characteristics of the second renaissance, one should know about the first one too, since the second generation took up ideas, models and strategies from the first one.
The article provides descriptions of the first generations groups Nuova Consonanza, Musica Elecctronica Viva and New Phonic Art which represented the 'new definition' of improvisation in relation to the 'canonic' new music. AMM represents an attempt of such new definition beyond both composed music and jazz. Cornelius Cardew appeared then as a special case, both utilizing improvisation as a composer and acting as an improvisor. In this way he was standing between two worlds and became an immediate forerunner of the second generation. His "Treatise" received special, detailed commenting here. Also Earle Brown, Barry Guy, Alexander von Schlippenbach, Anthony Braxton and Bob Ostertag have sections devoted to them.
There are also additional sections ("Er-improvisierte Komposition" and "Kompositionen/Konzepte für Improvisatoren" which discusses and details some ways in which composition is now accepted among improvisors and how composition and improvisation have been combined.
(g1.1)/ Riikonen, Hannu T.: 1960 luku ja uusi tapa improvisoida. Nykymusiikin improvisaatioliikkeen piirissä vallinneista improvisaatiokäsityksistä. [1960's and a new way to improvise Concepts about improvisation among the contemporary music' improvisation movement]. Lisensiaatintutkimus. Turun yliopisto, Taiteiden tutkimuksen laitos, musiikkitiede, huhtikuu 2000. Licentiate dissertation, Turku (Finland), 2000. Turku University Library. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
Title of this licentiate paper means "1960 and a new way to improvise - Concepts about improvisation among the contemporary music's improvisation movement".
(g1.2)/ freiStil. Magazin für Musik und Umgebung. Since 2005, 6 issues per year (paper, no issues online). http://freistil.klingt.org
Austrian journal for various underground-related music which may include materials about improvised music. Contents center around selected musicians.
g1.2/ Gränslöst. Magasin för samtida musik., 1995-2000. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed.
g1.2/ Hurly Burly, 1997-2001. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed.
g1.2/ Rubberneck, 1985-2000. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed.
g1.3/ The Wire, 1982-. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed.
(g1.2)/ Arroyas, Frédérique; Heble, Ajay; Waterman, Ellen (ed.):
Critical Studies in Improvisation, www.criticalimprov.com,
From the editorial of the first issue: "...a peer reviewed, interdisciplinary, open access electronic journal. Ours is, as far as we know, the first journal to provide an academic forum for a developing critical field that accents the social implications of improvisational musical practices. Indeed, while improvisational music has historically been analyzed within the context of various musical disciplines, what distinguishes the research we aim to profile in CSI/ÉCI is precisely its emphasis on musical improvisation as a site for the analysis of social practice... The idea for Critical Studies in Improvisation/Études critiques en improvisation comes in large measure out of the research activities associated with the Guelph Jazz Festival colloquium...". The editors signing this are associated with the University of Guelph, Canada. Articles appear both in HTML and pdf.
(g1.2)/ www.onefinalnote.com. Jazz and improvised music
Online American based magazine with "features" (articles) and a large number of CD reviews. Contents are at the time of writing this (2008) still available at the URL, and there is a useful "archive" function making all material available. An alternative location to find the material, should it vanish one day, could be the search engine www.gigablast.com, searching un the URL and using the "archive" function.
G2.1 DOCUMENTATION, REPORTS AND DISCUSSION CONCERNING SPECIFIC IMPROVISORS, GROUPS, WORKS, EVENTS, TENDENCIES(G2.1)/See also: Borgo (2005;G1.1) (Evan Parker); Lukoszevieze (2003;G2.1); Schwabe (2001;G5); Saunders (2009; g5); Melvin (2010; G1.1); Herndler (2014;E1); Scott (2014:G3); Redhead (2016;G2.1); Gottschalk (2016;G3); Morris (2012;G3); Toop (2016;G2.1)
(g2.1)/ Anderson, Christine: Review: "Torsten Wagner und Nuova Consonanza", Musiktexte 103, August, 2004.
(g2.1)/ Bell, Clive (ed.): LMC...the first 25 years. Resonance 8:2 + 9:1 (double issue, with double CD), special issue on London Musicians' Collective, 2000. LOGOS BRIT.LIBR. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(g2.1)/ Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl: "Offene Komposition und
andere Künste". Bidrag til "Themenschwerpunkt: Improvisieren
nach Konzepten", ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation
LXVIII, juni, 2002.
About the activity in Danish Group for Intuitive Music and other similar groups as well as in the teaching at Aalborg University. Discussion of this composition form.
(g2.1)/ Bergstroem-Nielsen, Carl; Debrunner, Ruedi; Stehle, Max (2016): "Brücke zwischen Komposition und Improvisation? "Schwarm 13"", MusikTexte 151, November 2016, p.21-24. Online here.
Documents an initiative of concert activity in Berlin based on improvisation within a framework of "sculpture - swarm - conversation" and some additional programming.
(g2.1)/ Bergstroem-Nielsen, Carl (2017): Musik mitteilen. http://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/musik-mitteilen(016f89a5-3c8a-48be-aa56-2d47840c2120).html
Analyses a number of open works by Swiss composer Max E. Keller from the beginning of the seventies and provides a glmpse of later similar works. Notation and how it contributes to define the form is one of the themes for discussion. See also the collection of works in extenso at www.intuitivemusic.dk/iima/mk.htm
(g2.1)/ Cardew, Cornelius: Cornelius Cardew: A Reader. Matching Tye near Harlow, England (Copula), 2006.
Essays and writings by Cardew, including (1961;E2) and (1971;G3). Also commentaries and responses from Richard Barrett, Christopher Fox, Brian Dennis, Anton Lukoszevieze, Michael Nyman, Eddie Prévost, David Ryan, Howard Skempton, Dave Smith, John Tilbury and Christian Wolff.
(g2.1)/ Collins, Nicolas (ed.): "Not nescessarily English Music", special issue Leonardo Music Journal 11, 2001.
In his introduction, the editor describes experimental tendencies of the UK since 1960 and on as a "golden age". There was a lively and independent activity both in free jazz and other kinds of experimental music, and a distinctive feature was its pluralism, which disregarded former distinctions between high and low art, composer and performer, and more. The movement was uncommercial, and it needs to be better documented.
Below, selected articles are summarized.
In "The arrival of a new musical aesthetic: Extracts from a half-buried diary", Eddie Prèvost, himself an important figure in the development of improvised music, outlines a personal outlook. This touches on influental groupings such as Spontaneous Music Ensemble, Music Improvisation Compay, AMM, Cornelius Cardew and John Tilbury. Tilbury introduced American indeterminate music to English audiences and Cardew's background in conservatory studies and activity himself as a conservatory teacher also contributed to exchange on various levels. Further, The London Musician's Cooperative [not the same as London Musician's Collective but perhaps a forerunner], associated with The Little Theatre Club and the names of Derek Bailey, Even Parker, John Stevens, Trevor Watts, Paul Lytton, Tony Oxley, Howard Riley and Barry Guy - as well as the Scratch Orchestra.
Matthew Sansom, in "Imagining music: abstract expressionism and free improvisation", outlines features common to Abstract Expressionism painting and free improvised music. Both Surrealism and Dada practised the idea of "automatic writing" and transferred it to the process of painting - "action painting" as it became named by Jackson Pollock. Being present in the process and following the material's "own", emerging tendency, to let go of conscious control, became essential. While reference could be made to figurative elements they were, however, regarded as having a secondary importance. So Abstract Expressionism was centered around the material and form of the art. Thus it differed from symbolism and iconography of earlier times. Close parallels to free improvised music exist in their "artistic agendas" dealing with "processual dynamics". Bailey's notion of "non-idiomatic" music is in line with this. - A fuller understanding of free improvisation may occur by taking these parallels into account.
Hugh Davies accounts for the history of the live electronic music ensemble Gentle Fire in "Gentle Fire: An early approach to live electronic music". This group played mainly open compositions by a variety of composers. Verbally notated cokmpositions by Stockhausen (and Sternklang) were among them, and there was a special collaboration with this composer, Davies having been his assistant earlier. The importance of this ensemble for the open composition music form is illustrated by the fact that a total of 28 different composers were performed (including ones by ensemble members but excluding collective compositions by the ensemble), and 100 works with 245 performances during the lifetime of the group 1968-1974. This article is a fascinating account of this group's career which includes also many details of the historical context. - A composition being typical of the group spirit, according to the author, by Graham Hearn is stated in extenso.
Stuart Jones, in "Making it up as you go along", reflects on his musical career in the ensembles Gentle Fire, British Summer Time Ends and Kahondo Style. This includes also reflections on the nature of pluralism, the mixing of styles: in Gentle Fire, as coming out of a love of "surreal conjugations and juztapositions" that might be akin to British stand-up comedy; later, as from simply following their liking for the popular music they had also played (cf. the editor's remarks on pluralism cited above!).
David Toop introduces the enclosed two CDs with personal memories, "Not necessarily captured, except as a fleeting glance". The variety of experimental music from 1960 and on is also reflected on - the spirit of postwar times he characterizes as "a kind of cultural and political anarchy", on the background of the war that had ended, but within the security of a stable society. That led to "collapsing boundaries" between the various experimental tendencies, and between high art and pop. The Portsmouth Sinfonia lead by Gavin Bryars who was a lecturer at the Portsmouth Art College then, is mentioned. The orchestra often appeared "hilarious" with its seemingly wretched renditions of popular classic excerpts, yet its basis was a serious playing to the best of each one's ability - a pluralist phenomenon.
Finally, there is a section (of seven) pages which, almost slightly encyclopedia-like, provides detailed information on the musicians and the music. Examples of such detailed small articles include the one on The People Band, and the one describing a group composition by Gentle Fire.
Other than by the authors mentioned above, there are also articles by: Doriún Casserley; Alvin Lucier; Scanner; Janek Schaeffer and Joe Banks.
(g2.1)/ Corbett, John: Booklet article, Sounds 99, 3 CD-set Blue Tower Records BTCD 09/10/11, 2000.
Interesting remarks about nations and clichès. "according to this set of clichees, Germans were the power blowers, the Dutch the theatrical ironics, the British some sort of anal-compulsive abstract sound manipulators...there's been plenty of flux, with the Brit Steve Beresford adopting "Dutch" cgharacteristics, and Germans like Wolfgang Fuchs utilizing more "British" aesthetics, and so on" (p.16).
(g2.1)/ Curran, Alvin: "...todesverachtend, lebensbejahend, extasesuchend...". Special issue Improvisation, MusikTexte 86/87 November, 2000.
Historical notes about an important Italian music phenomenon of the seventies and on, Musica elettronica Viva.
(g2.1)/ Decroupet, Pascal: "Vers une theorie generale", MusikTexte 98, August, 2003.
Includes analysis of Mobile by Henri Pousseur and other works - there are mutual reactions, listening pauses, modifying what you play next according to what you have heard.
(g2.1)/ Dudda, Friedrich: "Die Wurzel aller Modernität. Die Bedeutung des Ausdrucks "Improvisation" im Idiolekt von Pierre Boulez". "Schlechte Unterhaltungsmusik? Pierre Boulez und die Grenzen der Improvisation". MusikTexte 131, November 2011, p. 28-32 and 33-36.
Boulez was greatly inspired by poet Mallarmé and composer Debussy because of the ambiguous aspects of their works, which he saw as expressions of spontaneity and as improvisational qualities. He also saw "improvisatory" qualities as essential to his own music - by which he meant certain possibilities to freely combine parts of some works, or to let some parameters open, tempo for instance, at certain spots in his compositions. In order for a composition to be aesthetically successful, he views it as an absolute nescessity that both eye and ear must be involved. That is, there must be planning and reasoning, and thus for him improvisation can only make sense as a finish, as the last step in realising a musical work. Forms of improvisation more free than that could only become aesthetic failures according to him, and he judged them as childish.
The second article investigates the thesis by Boulez that the aim of the musical work is to allow us to become more ourselves and constantly to open up new, unexpected spaces. Seen in relation to free improvisation, according to the author, on the grounds of his own arguments Boulez could not think that good free improvised music was logically impossible, only that it would, empirically, be improbable. However, many phenomena in art history have to do with letting go of control and seem to be able to fulfill the aim he formulated and which was stated above. Seen in relation to "conceptual improvisation", to open forms of composition (which, for Dudda, seems to include a practise of "work in progress"), he notes that the function of writing itself is reflected on in this form - only during the compositional work it will become apparent which functions writing is going to have. - The fact that Boulez makes negative statements about the limits of improvisation without having a sufficient first-hand knowledge of the practises he rejects shows that his position is a dogmatic and conservative one. Beyond such limited views, it can be noted that group improvisation, being "poly-individual", has a parallel in modern literature in which the central perspective of one narrator has been expanded in favour of unfolding the narrative perspective from several persons.
(g2.1)/ Eley, Rod: A Short History of the Scratch Orchestra, in:
Cardew, Corneilus: Stockhausen serves imperialism, at
Originally published in 1974 (London, Latimer), this is a critical book in which Cardew and others take their new stand against the playful avantgarde activity of the Scratch Orchestra till then and for an orthodox Marxist position. This essay contains also some information about events and tendencies within the orchestra.
(g2.1)/ Feisst, Sabine: "Etwas Unvorhersehbares tun. Zur Bedeutung der Improvisation bei Cage", MusikTexte 106, August, 2005.
Lecture examining the relation of Cage to improvisation, held at conference "New Directions in the Study of Improvisation", Univ. of Illinois 2004 (org. by Bruno Nettl and Gabrioel Solis). The author previously wrote about this subject in her book Feisst (1997;G1.1)
(g2.1)/ Frisk, Henrik: Improvisation, Computers and Interaction. Rethinking Human-Computer Interaction Through Music. PhD, Malmö Academy of Music, Lund University.
Doctoral studies and research in fine and performing arts no. 6, 2008. ISSN 1653-8617. Online: http://www.performingarts.lu.se/upload/performingarts/ImprovisationComputersAndInteraction.zip
Investigates how an open score can take shape, based on the computer used in musical performance, which allows for improvisation and for accumulation of experience. An example is worked out, using Integra Class and Csound software. Among others, theoretical references are made to Eco's ideas about the open work (see Eco (1962; G3) and to some concepts taken from Nattiez. These describe "poietic" (constructive), "esthetic" (interpretative) and "neutral" levels - the last one onsists of the trace left by one of the other ones. In both composition and performing there may be an oscillation between poietic and esthetic levels. "...no matter what the current process is, and regardless of the current mode of interaction, the initiative can shift back and forth between the performer and the electronic part", the author states p.162. Even if the the main initiative is seen as coming from the performer, there is also a feedback from the computer. - The author proposes a notion of 'interaction-as-difference' instead of 'interaction-as-control'.
(g2.1)/ Furnell, Rebecca: Declaring Independence: New Experiments and the Political Music of Frederic Rzewski. MA Thesis, Univ. of Manchester, 2000.
About Rzewski and Cardew (Rzewski advised Cardew not to do the Treatise project) and Sound Pool Events.
(g2.1)/ Groetz, Thomas: "Nordeuropäische Dorfmusik, Traktoren und Windräder. Zur Alltagsästhetik von Sven-Åke Johansson. MusikTexte 129, Mai 2011, p.4-9.
Quoting sketches of compositions by Johansson, which seem to be mainly for the composers' own memorising. In the same issue there is also one more article about Johansson by Peter Ablinger and a list of works.
(g2.1)/ Gronemeyer, Gisela and Oehlschlägel, Reinhard (ed) (2007): Frederic Rzewski: Nonsequiturs. Writings & Lecures on Improvisation, Composition, and Interpretation. / Frederic Rzewski: Unlogische Folgerungen. Schriften und Vorträge zu Improvisation, Komposition und Interpretation. Köln: Edition MusikTexte. Part of a series: Edition MusikTexte 009. All texts appear in both languages.
This collection of materials related to Rzewski contains both considerations of a general and political nature regarding music and writings touching specifically on improvisation and related matters. Among the latter are "Little bangs" (p.48) and "A Fresh new wind" (p.144). ("Little Bangs" previously appeared in Current Musicology Fall 1999, no.67, p.386. Such bibliographical notes on texts are not part of this anthology). Further "Inspiring the love of the art. Teaching composition tomorrow" which reflects on the increasingly collaborative qualities in innovative music. Giving thoughts to performance has now become a nescessity according to this, an area which was formerly left to performers and technicians.
Further "Creating out of nothing" (p.154). And there is a whole section in the book with documentation around Musica Elettronica viva (MEV). A peculiar documentation text is to be found here around "Zuppa". This was an improvisation event held several times. Although only the title and no further explicit agreements existed before playing, it nevertheless became a notion of a certain kind of music-making, similar to some of the prose pieces. In addition to Rzewski's description, Alvin Curran also has provided a list of instruments available, which makes it more clear what could make it tempting to the audience to take part. So this is a rare description of a "greyzone composition" between composition and improvisation, taking shape, as it seems, also from the recurring performances. Rare, because those who create such "pieces" often do not often describe the process to others, and so it remains obscure, in some cases also wilfully so. - "Provisory confession" is a text from 1964 going into some details of notation and performance in selected compositions. More up to date is the large the collection of program notes that also reveal glimpses of such aspects. Finally can be mentioned some articles from Vinton (1974; H2.2 as well as mentioned with some individual authors). One of these, "Intellect and intuition. Non-metrical rhythm since 1950", quotes Edges by Chr. Wolff in extenso.
Importantly, this book also makes some verbal scores ("prose pieces") available in both English and German language. These are, confusingly, not designated as such in the table of contents, but here is a list:
Imitation Love p.116
Second structure p.144
Work songs p.284
Sound Pool p.324
Second Structure, Spacecraft and Sound Pool are also online at IIMA.
The reader is strongly advised to search both the present addenda section and the previous one of the bibliography for literature and pieces by and about Rzewski. Both since he has in recent years written some articles of a larger scale than most of those compiled in this book, and because the various materials supplement each other well.
g2.1/ Jost, Ekkehard: Free Jazz. Graz, 1974. Reprinted 2003, Part of a series: Beiträge zur Jazzforschung; 4. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed.
(g2.1)/ Kager, Reinhard: "Spontaneität versus Reproduktion. Einige Gedanken zur Situation des Improvisierens heute", MusikTexte 111, November, 2006.
Mainstream jazz is critisized for having a reproductive attitude and thus having alienated itself from the former creative spirit of jazz. As positive developments the author sees the use of computers in freely improvised music and interest in improvisation from classical avantgarde composers. Reference is made to Adorno, Berendt, Noglik, Lewis and Wilson.
(g2.1)/ Kager, Reinhard: "Elektronische Impulse. Über die
Bedeutung des Computers in der improvisierten Musik", 'MusikTexte
115, November, 2007.
Comments and quotings by musicians who share the view that the computer is becoming just another instrument in improvised ensemble playing.
(g2.1)/ Karkoschka, Erhard: "Aspects of Group Improvisation", http://www.intuitivemusic.dk/iima/ek.htm 1971 (transl.2004).
Translation from German of the classical article by Erhard Karkoschka from 1971 on improvisation as a liberating experience seen from a composer's point of view. (g2.1)/ Lukoszevieze, Anton: "Die Welt als Musik durchwandern" - "Nahezu komplettes annotiertes Werkverzeichnis Philip Corner", MusikTexte 99, December 2003.
The last title contains a list of verbally and graphically notated works by this Fluxus-orientated composer which is comprehensive and annotated - among other things, instrumentation and notation are stated.
(g2.1)/ Lekfeldt, Jørgen: "Som tiden går - portræt af Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen", Dansk Musiktidsskrift 2, oktober + 3, november, 2001/02.
Examines and analyses selected work dealing with improvisation in various ways, among others Quadrivium for piano (1972), Mimesis I for wind quintet (1974), Postcard-Music (1976), pieces from "improvisationskalender" (1996) and Frameworks (2000f). Includes lists of selected works, of recordings and of selected writings on music (especially in Danish).
(g2.1)/ Metzner, Susanne: "hear and everywhere", Einblicke 13, 2002.
Accounts of a course at Magdeburg. Participants worked independently of each other and communicated via a billboard
(g2.1)/ Meyer, Thomas: "Über das Verfertigen von Präludien. Eine Gebrauchskunst zwischen Komposition und Improvisation", Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. Tema-nummer om improvisation. No. 4, Juli/August, 1999.
On historical improvisation guides by among others Clementi, Couperin, Gretry, Telemann, Kalkbrenner.
(g2.1)/ Mockus, Martha: Sounding Out: Pauline Oliveros and Lesbian Musicality. New York (Routledge) 2007.
This book examines the influence of lesbian commuinities and "second wave feminism" on Oliveros' work. Sonic Meditations has been devoted a chapter for itself. More about it in the review by Tracy M. McMullen in Critical Studies in Improvisation, Vol.4, no.2, 2008.
(g2.1)/ Nanz, Dieter A.: "Improvisieren und Forschen. Gedanken am Rande der
Basler Improvisationsmatineen". MusikTexte 114, August 2007, p.83-84.
Thoughts around the improvisation matinés in Basel which started 2003. Improvisation has become established at conservatories. An immanent critique of the music form is suggested, emerging from the experience of its rhapsodic character. A critical view of the theorising part of the series is presented, after an acclaim of the performance part. The author proposes to study the philosophy of Merlau-Ponty (with 'body knowledge' as a notion) in order to find a theoretical basis which is not a result of forced theorising that fails to connect to its object of study because of an unreflected striving towards being objective.
See also the book Nanz (2011; G2.1), a book written by contributors to the series.
(g2.1)/ Neuner, Florian: "Die Sache selbst. Zu Subjekt/Objekt". Booklet to DVD "Subjekt/Objekt", Brucknerhaus Linz, 2011. Cop. by Ch.Herndler, M.Scherer
An introduction to Christoph Herndler's principles of composition - close to the descriptions by Herndler himself (2011;G2.1) but worth reading for the authors' way of throwing this into relief with traditional ways of reproducing music from the sheet. For instance: "...no score from which one could write out parts and which would then suggest the limited role of each musician in the large whole. Every musician have at all times the total "score" to look at. The formal construction is not a riddle which you would have to approach through analysing it first. It is quite open und accessible to every musician."
Also liner notes to the content which is a version of "abgeschnitten, der kreis" for large ensemble and a number of video cameras, a performer and a drawing artist. This work was also discussed by Herndler in (2011;G2.1).
(g2.1)/ Neuner, Florian: "Auf der Spitze des Eisbergs. Die Berliner Komponistin und Verlegerin Juliane Klein". MusikTexte 139, p.5-13. Includes a list of works.
Juliane Klein did her first studies in the DDR with, among others, composer Hermann Keller who taught her improvisation and composition. She later developed her own form of open composition. It seems to rely for the most part on verbal instructions, judging from the example quoted. This is a section in extenso ("work sheet") from the opera "Allein" (2012). It states some reflections on the dramatic content and provides a poetic description of the desired atmosphere, as well as some concrete musical guidelines.
(g2.1)/ Nonnenmann, Rainer: "Wanderer, kommst du nach...?",
in: MusikTexte 102, August, 2004.
Includes a discussion of problems with late works by Nono which were written in close collaboration with musicians. They remain bound to those specific persons and are hard to approach by others - the know-how remained implicit with Nono and those musicians.
(g2.1)/ Parsons: The Scratch Orchestra and Visual Arts, Leonardo Music Journal 11,1, 2001.
Contains good, detailed accounts of the history of the Scratch Orchestra. Also activity of Portsmouth Sinfonia and Fluxus is treated
(g2.1)/ Pfleiderer, Martin: "Herausforderung. Der englische Saxophonist John Butcher", MusikTexte 86/87 november, 2000.
(g2.1)/ ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXVIII, June,
Speciel issue on improvisation following recipes. Various exercises and pieces are quoted around in this issue.
g2.1/ Rutherford, Paul: Telephone conversation with Paul Rutherford, 4/5, 2000. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
g2.1/ Rzewski, Frederic; Teitelbaum, Richard: liner notes to CD MEV Musica Elettronica viva "Friday". plana-M 29/NMN.073, 2008.
Rzewski's contribution deals with utopian aspects of this composers' group which members abandoned composition for improvisation. This was, according to Rzewski, about creating "meaningful rituals, not images". The group process "tends to be more intense than any solitary activity such as composition, this is because living in a group tends to amplify all experiences, both the positive and the negative ones". Music-making should be freed from commercialism and passive adoration of stars - then "the "concert" will come to resemble other liberated forms such as the party or the day-off, themselves secular remnants of earlier ceremonies".
Teitelbaum's "MEV then and now" discusses the inclusiveness typical of the historic time in which the group was active. It is stated to be an excerpt of "Some MEV Memories" (no further references are given).
(g2.1)/ Sanderson, Griselda: Creating a Dialogue through Improvisation in Cross-Cultural Collaborations. Music and Arts in Action vol.5 (1), 2016, 19-37. Online (use link above).
Accounts for a project of collaboration between musicians with Scottish and African backgrounds, difficulties and rewards. It is seen as essential that participants take time to get to know each other's traditions and that each tradition is retained to some degree in the composite product. Oral transmission is seen as the main way to communicate. An encouraging aspect was the willingness of musicians living away from their original countries to share their knowledge.
(g2.1)/ Saunders, James: "Vielfalt der Konfigurationen. Modulare Musik", MusikTexte 130, August 2011, p.58-74.
Composer James Saunders accounts for his ideas about "modular composition" which leaves details open for the musician's own interpretation and allows the works to have different durations. Reference is also made to similar procedures in works by John Cage and Matthias Spahlinger (128 erfüllte Augenblicke, 1975). In the same issue there is an article by Max Nyffeler, "Konzeptionelle Spiele" (53-57) and a work list. In Nyffeler's article he is also quoted for taking Chr. Wolff's orchestra piece "Ordinary Matter" (2001) as a model.
g2.1/ Schwabe, Matthias: "Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen: From the Danish Seasons" in: Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation, März, 2000. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(g2.1)/ Spahlinger, Mathias: "Veruneinheitlichende Ideen. Mathias Spahlinger spricht über den Komponisten Hans Wütrich", Dissonance, September 2010, p.48-55.
Includes a quote from, and comments on, Hans Wütrich's Kommunikationsspiele (1973).
(g2.1)/ Trudu, Antonio: "Randbemerkungen zu Franco
Evangelistis Schriften", Muenz, Harald (ed.): "...hin zu einer
neuen Welt. Notate zu Franco Evangelisti, Saarbrücken (Pfau)
P. 33: "1964 he was a co-founder of the improvisation group Nuova consonanza and wrote the following: "It was perfectly clear to me that, taking variants of material as the basis, one could also extend variability to the form: the open work, through which I came to GNIC, is an extreme limit of Western music, but also a return to the origin". Quoted from Nuova Consonanza nel mondo italiano oggi, in: Marcatré, no. 16, 17, 18, 1965, p. 231f.
(g2.1) Wagner, Thorsten: Franco Evangelisti und die Improvisationsgruppe Nuova Consonanza. Zum Phänomen Improvisation in der neuen Musik der sechziger Jahre, Saarbrücken (Pfau), 2002.This book focuses closely on the improvisation group Nuova Consonanza which was established by Franco Evangelisti in 1964 and lasted until 1985. Free improvisation was a new phenomenon of that time. A special characteristic of the group was that it consisted of composers. 21 members other than Evangelisti were according to Wagner affiliated with the group (during years stated between parenthesis), among which were: Larry Austin (1965), Mario Bertoncini (1965-74), Walter Branchi (1966-75), Aldo Clementi (1965-66), John Eaton (1965), John Heineman (1965-70), Roland Kayn (1965-67), Frederic Rzewski (1966), William O.Smith (1965), Ivan Vandor (1965-67), Egisto Macchi (1968-), Giovanni Piazza (1971-), Jesus Villa Rojo (1971-), Giancarlo Schiaffini, Antonello Neri, Alessandro Sbordoni (1977-).
(g2.1)/ Watson, Ben: Derek Bailey and the Story of Free Improvisation, Sabon, Essex (Verso) 2004.
Biography. With a large index comprising many names and concepts
g2.1/ Watts, Trevor: Mail-correspondance with Trevor Watts, May, 2002. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(g2.1)/ Wilson /"Person [memories and obituaries concerning Peter Niklas Wilson]", MusikTexte 99, Dezember, 2003.
Contributions by many improvisors and others
(g2.1)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Segen der Konzeptlosigkeit". das Berliner "Zeitkratzer"-Ensemble, MusikTexte 93, Mai, 2002.
(g2.1)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Neue Paradigmen in der Improvisierten Musik. Ein Vortrag beim Achten Darmstädter Jazzforum", MusikTexte 99, Dezember, 2003.
Deals with forms of improvised music which are not connected to jazz and with "reduction" as a keyword with improvisors Burkhard Stangl and Andrea Neumann et al.
(g2.1)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas; Polaschegg, Nina: Bildende Kunst und improvisierte Musik, MusikTexte 103, August, 2004.
(g2)/ See also Jahn (2006;E2); Hintzenstern (A2.2);
(g2.2)/ Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl:
Fixing/Circumscribing/Suggesting/Evoking. An analysis of
Stockhausen's text pieces.
VBN (Aalborg University), 2006.
Analytical examination of the 31 pieces in Stockhausen's work collections. Close attention is given to the different degrees of precision or directness employed by the composer in describing the musical material. Such degrees were worked out by the composer on the background of serial principles. This repertory thus allows the improvising musician to choose according to his liking how "down-to-earth" or not the playing process should be.
(g2.2) / Toop,Richard: "Versuch, eine Grenze zu überschreiten... Johannes
Fritsch im Gespräch über die Aufführungspraxis von Werken
Karlheinz Stockhausens", MusikTexte 116, Februar 2008.
This interview with Johannes Fritsch, who as a musician worked closely together with Stockhausen, provides a useful overview of new forms of performance practise in Stockhausens works: Mikrophonie I and II in which some performers solely operate microphones and in which various shades of noise are prescribed verbally, to be produced with found materials on a large gong; Mixtur, in which two musicians have the sole job of operating sine wave generators (for ring modulation of ensemble sound); Momente, in which choir singers freely interpreted humurous instructions such as for instance "like an old witch" or "like a baby"; Prozession, Kurzwellen and Spiral with the plus-minus notation and use of short-wawe radios; Hymnen, in a version with improvising soloist; Solo for melody instrument with electronic feedback in which - like in many other cases - Stockhausen had the role of sound projectionist, modifying and filtering the output from microphones and machines; Aus den Sieben Tagen (From the Seven Days), the interviewee's view of the recording practise then and details of the collaboration with Stockhausen.
All this is a good example of how new use of instruments, new notations and new electronic devices are interweaven - including, but not limited to, the notion of improvisation. Such outlining of performance practise from a general point of view is still a rich field for further investigations, dealing with the fundamental practical side of music creation.
(g2.3)/ Roussel, Patrice: Discography of John Zorn. 2000.
Contains a bibliography as well, and list of videos.
(g2.3)/ Slusser, David: Cobra Notes. [2008 or later according to archive.org accessed May 22 2015.] http://arvidtp.net/bnm/cobra-score/cobra%20notes,%20Slusser.pdf Accessed May 20 2015. [Previously http://www.4-33.com/scores/cobra/cobra-notes.html].
Score and verbal explanations
G2.4 EARLE BROWN'S DECEMBER 1952Be sure to see also the first bibliography until 2000. See also Bièvre (2012;H1) and Velasco-Pufleau (2012;B2.1); extensive analysis in Storesund (2015;G3.1).
G2.5 WOLFFSee also Wagner (2002; G2.1); extensive analysis in Storesund (2015;G3.1).
(g2.5)/ Wagner, Christoph: "Zwischen zwei Stühlen" (also English
version), booklet to Wergo WER 6658 2, Christian Wolff. Bread and
This is a brief interview which nevertheless provides important information on Wolff's Edges having been inspired by the English context (AMM and Cardew) and his relation to improvisation.
(g2.5)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Neue und alte Spiele / New and
old Games", booklet to Wergo WER 6658 2, Christian Wolff. Bread
and Roses, 2003.
General presentation focusing on one of the works featured on the CD (in 10 different takes!): For 1, 2 or 3 people.
G3 GENERAL PHILOSOPHY, AESTHETICS, MUSIC THEORY AND MUSIC ANALYSIS
(g3)/ "Med eller uden kaos", Dansk Musiktidsskrift 6, marts,
About the festival Stockholm New Music 2003 which focuses on composing musicians and composers who are musicians themselves. "You have to see the musician as an artist and not just as a tool", Ivo Nilsson stated (p.201). The entailing discussion is summarized.
(g3)/ Bergstroem-Nielsen, Carl: "Sound is multi-dimensional.
Parameter analysis as a tool for creative music making" - http://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/sound-is-multidimensional_40caf3f0-b690-11db-8b72-000ea68e967b.html (pdf version), http://www.intuitivemusic.dk/iima/cbn_multi.htm (HTML version), 2006.
33 pieces for improvising ensemble based on the author's teaching at Aalborg University, Denmark. Compositions were created as part of the training in improvisation and formulation of playing rules. They employ selected global parameters, allowing participants to play from the score in a heterophonic manner. Verbally prescribed parameter changes and graphic/pictorial illustrations are further characteristics. Additionally, history and theory of parameter analysis is accounted for.
(g3)/Chase, Stephen Timothy: Improvised Experimental Music and the Construction of a Collaborative Aesthetic. PhD, Dep.of Music, University of Sheffield, 2006. The author may be contacted through my mail here - I'll forward.
This work traces connections between historical conceptions of composition, the idea of the musical work and freely improvised music, and it further discusses musicians' attitudes by referring to theories about democracy in order to understand how individual impulse is connected to a collaborative aesthetic by a common consent.
The term "Improvised Experimental Music" was chosen to designate the historical affinity to composed experimental music - free improvisation has, among others, a background in ensembles of the 1960s where Cardew and other composers were active, and it places value on concert performances: "IEM is not a commercial or formally a 'functional' area of music making, and therefore its participants locate its value for them by appealing either to art status (usually) shown through the medium of performance) or to the seemingly more modest area of communal aesthetic activity" (p.81f).
The "performance-driven" musicians' view stresses musical ideals and the responsibility towards the audience. Statements by Eddie Prèvost and John Tilbury are commented on as exemplifying this view. The "play-driven" one is more concerned with the excitement of the immediate activity: "It's that word play. You know, one of the things I talk to the students here a lot about is...'What do you do? You say you play music, what does play mean?'...I think most people actually work music" (Hugh Nankivell quoted on p.104).
"What differentiates improvised music from most other practises in its challenge to the work concept is its basis in collaboration", the author states p.79. He takes up the observation made by American philosopher Stanley Cavell: "in art... your invitation is based not on power or authority, but on attraction and promise..." (Cavell quoted p.111). This is also the situation for political initiatives within a democratic system. The author extends this line of thought to the audience's role. As traditional ways of evaluating the music are absent, the bond of commitment between musicians and audience has to be created not through recognisable styles but, in the terms of Gritten, by demonstrating 'authenticity' and 'sincerity'. Relating this to improvised music, the author sees the former as a notion that might only be relevant in improvised music under the special circumstance of knowing a performers 'sound' in beforehand (p.115), and he interprets 'sincerity' in relation to performers' intentions as perceived by the audience members. Different organic, or oppositely stylised or self-conscious approaches may, generally, belong to the strategies of "suspending an audiences' sense of disbelief" (p.116). There must be a 'social contract' in Cavell's sense: "...not mere obidience, but membership" (quoted on p.119). More recent writers (Laclau and Mouffe, as well as musicologist Leonard Meyer) have stressed the 'irrational' element in democracy (p.110), employing an 'agonistic" model (p.121). In Meyers' words, "ad hoc judgements" can be made, to which the author comments that "democracy is useful politically...because for a diverse collection of people to agree entirely on one overarching systematic approach is close to impossible and, potentially, dangerously inflexible" (both quotations from p.122). The following quotations illustrate further the points made by the author. The first one is about the kind of agreement that has to exist before playing: "X agrees to perform with Y because X knows that Y will play in such a way that complements what X plays; and Y know that X will not set fire on Y's cello" (p.121). The second concerns the active, both critical and creative role demanded by the musician: "The individual is impelled to find a way in which to make the music work as the effort of an ensemble by deciding to support the 'wrong' idea, or transform it or reject it by replacing it with an altermative" (p.123).
Last chapter before the concluding one is a series of analysis of some of Eddie Prèvosts' weekly open London improvisation workshops (see also Prèvost (2011;G1.1).
(g3)/ Costa, Rogério: Improvisation, Klang, Körper und neue Technologien / Improvisation, Sound, Body and new Technologies, in: Gagel, Reinhard;Schwabe, Matthias (Hg/eds.): Improvisation erforschen - improvisierend forschen. Beiträge zur Exploration musikalischer Improvisation. / Researching improvisation - researching by improvisation. Bielefeld (Transcript Verlag) 2016. Bilingual throughout.
Free improvisation is both a "diving into" the sound and a building up, a synthesis, of a whole from smaller units or particles. There exists both a "molecular" level and a "molar" one, in Deleuzeian terminology. The bulding up aspect is comparable to that of spectral music, a method within composed experimental music. It is also comparable to the "granular synthesis" of composer Xenakis.
But the music is not explainable in terms of sound alone. The author mentions "deterritorilization, reterritorilazation, collage and bricolage as other technologies which specifically become important in improvised music: "the fact that the instruments are territorialized is not nescessarily problematic for free improvisation, as it builds an environment of musical thought and action, where what matters is the continuity of interactive sound flow which is metaphorically based on the ideas of game and conversation". And: "Thus, even when the timbres of the instruments remain identifiable and related to their territoriality, the dynamic result of sound flow can unfold properly and with vital energy" (p.157). This may be the sense, then, in which composer Helmut Lachenmann speaks of a "new virginity of sound" (p.157).
Free improvised music can be said to rely on the acceptance of the sound phenomenon as a whole, not on a tonal system. Quoting Solomos, the author also connects the notion of an "inner life of sound" "almost as an autonomous phenomenon or as a living and independent entry (a subject) into which the musician or listener must "dive", in order to discover its processes" (p.149). Composers Scelsi and Xenakis "were, to some extent, guided by this metapher of diving into the sound" (p.151). In free improvisation, "the feeling of sound immersion is simultaneous to the sensation of sound production" (p.151).
(g3)/ Dudda, Friedrich: Konkrete Phantasie - Reflexionsmodi in der konzeptionell-experimentellen Musik. Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation LXXIII, April 2010. Thema: Improvisation zwischen Reflex und Reflexion. P.4-8.
This author practises open compositions as composer and musician. He argues that improvisatory fantasy and creativity should not shut out clarity and precision on the levels of compositionally defining the music and that of playing.
He makes other points as to the importance of taking a clear stand to aesthetic issues. when the musical universe relates only to itself and takes no notice of other music universes, it becomes endangered by degeneration and stiffening into cliches. The author sees such a cliché in the opinion that improvisations should follow or have to follow an arch form as to crescendo - climax - decrescendo. Inspirations to a different approach could be taken from both Debussy and Stockhausen who created music in independent eposodes that are easy to combine with each other. Another issue inviting critical reflection is the composer Lachenmann's warning against naively using elements from classical music out of its context. Still another is composer Nicolaus A. Huber's warning against music production which may be authentic seen on its own background, but which has no profile in the surrounding music culture - those who take interest in culture around them may find such music uninteresting. - Finally, there is a short discussion on reflecting on the relation between music and life.
(g3)/ Ehrler, Hanno: "Musik im gebogenen Raum. Der Leipziger
Musiker und Komponist Erwing Stache", MusikTexte 92, Februar,
In characterizing this composer, reference is made referring to Fritsch (1997;G3) among others.
(g3)/ Engström, Andreas (ed.): Special issue on improvisation, Nutida Musik 2, 2005.
(g3)/ Fischlin, Daniel; Heble, Ajay (ed.): The Other Side of Nowhere. Jazz, improvisation and communities in dialogue, Middletown, Connecticut (Weslyan University Press) 2004.
This book includes contributions from speakers and musicians who have participated in the Canadian Guelph Jazz Festival (near Toronto). Scholars from USA, however, also play an important role, and main emphasis is on Cultural Studies from a black perspective. Contributions are grouped in four categories: Performers Improvise - Between and Across Cultures - Social Practise and Identity - Collaborative Dissonances. George Lewis is professor of "Cultural Studies / Experimental Practises Area" at San Diego University (UCSD) which seems to have become a center for improvisation studies. His "Improvised Music after 1950: Afrological and Eurological Perspectives" is reprinted with a newly written afterword commenting "...The Changing Same". In an article by the editors bearing the same title as the general title of the book, Stephen Nachmanovitch and Tom Nunn are adressed critically: "... in their haste to promulgate arguments about improvisation as a life-strategy for expressions of individuality, originality and creativity, they fail to account for the ways in which jazz improvisation and creative improvised music have always.. been about community building (rather than individual self-expression), about fostering new ways of thinking about, and participating in, human relationships (p.23). An article by Julie Dawn is devoted to the Feminist Improvising Group in the London seventies, making apparent the historical background of the later well-known trio Les Diaboliques with two of the former members - Maggie Nicols, Irene Schweizer plus Joëlle Leandre. Eddie Prèvost who is the only participant here from Europe, recalls the ciscussions during the seventies with Cornelius Cardew and expresses a sceptical opinion on using music "to help fly a political banner" (p.356) and advocates instead a general critical attitude to market conditions which make it difficult to develop in any larger scale the idea of responsible teamwork taking place in improvised music. - The book includes short biographies of contributors and a large bibliography of roughly 500 titles, plus a "webography". Contributors other than those alredy mentioned: Ingrid Monson; Michael Snow; Pauline Oliveros; Dana Reason; Jason Stanyek; Michael Essen; Mark Anthony Neal; Sherrie Tucker; Marshall Soules; Krin Gabbard; Michael Jarrett; Nathanael Mackey; John Corbett and Benjamin Lefebre.
(g3)/ Funk-Aydemir, Roswitha: "Gut hören, frei spielen. Kurse
freie Musik in Kassel", Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation
LXXI, Oktober 2006.
At the end of this report from a workshop with Rike Kohlhepp and Thomas Reuter, examples of pre-forming of improvisations done by agreeing on a few characteristics are stated. This is a greyzone area between composition and improvisation worthy of much more study.
(g3)/ Granum, Mathias Halgrener: Fri improvisation i grupper. Sammenspil, samarbejde og gruppedynamikker. En empirisk undersøgelse.
Kandidatspeciale i musikterapi, Aalborg Universitet, Juni 2010. With an English summary. http://projekter.aau.dk/
An empirical study concerned with questions related to how satisfied participants are with free improvisations and what lies behind. One of the methods of measurement was to play a video recording for participants immediately after playing in one minute sequences. Participants were then to indicate how satisfied they felt at that point. Resulting graphs (p.24f) show vivid differences in many cases, and disagreement appears as the normal situation, even if participants' overall rating may be similar in come cases. The author remarks (p.25) that it seems one will have to ask all participants about how they were satisfied with a given improvisation, if one is to have a precise impression.
(g3)/ Hodginson, Tim: "A rich field of possibilities:
strategies and indeterminacy in free improvisation", Resonance
The possibilities arising is a part of the improvising process, even when they do not come to use. Good essay on aesthetics.
(g3)/ Kösterke, Doris: "Was ist Qualität?", ringgespräch über
gruppenimprovisation LXVII, juni, 2001.
Considerations taking as their basis the novel by Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Quality lies in the relation between the beholder and the object.
(g3)/ Lange, Barbara Rose: "Teaching the Ethics of free improvisation".
Critical Studies in improvisation vol. 7 nr. 2, 2011.
Ideals of equality are often cherished by improvisors. Cardew (1971; G3) views this issue in the context of phiolsophical ethics. However, how can they be realised in an educational setting based on the teacher's authority? The author raises this issue and discusses it in relation to a community ensemble in Houston, USA. One example of attempting to open for dialogue and participant's choices in teaching is quoted p.5. Statements from participants are quoted and summarised which describe the friendly, yet also serious atmosphere. This is, so the author assumes, why some of them came to feel less afraid of the urban neighbourhood in question.
(g3)/ Lind, Rikke: "Improvisation". Klassisk musik. DR's
magasion om livet i musikken og musikken i livet, nr. 5, maj,
Harpsichordist and conductor Lars Ulrik Mortensen deals with improvisation in earlier times and in music history and states that historic music practise has re-established improvisation and in so doing made it possible to have more improvisation teaching at conservatories.
(g3)/ Linnros, David: "Ständigt flöde - improvisationen och
sökandet efter friheten", Special issue on improvisation,
Nutida Musik 2, 2005.
Resaon and Nature may appear as enemies, reason having become totalitarian and one-sided - according to Adorno/Horkheimer. Friedrich von Schiller, who built on ideas from Kant, asserted that sensibility cannot be simply subsumed under reason. Solely when they interact, humans can realize their potential: "Only when [the human being] changes, it EXISTS, only when it remains unchanging IT exists", says Schiller. So, "without form no matter, without matter no form". Applying these reflections to music, the author concludes that the concepts of improvisation and composition represent abstract principles, hence they are not very informative. Therefore, he recommends that discussion be focused on the actual potentials and limitations of the music in question.
(g3)/ Lucier, Alvin: "An einem hellen Tag. Avantgarde und
Experiment", MusikTexte 92, Februar, 2002.
Critique, among other things, of a practise of playing cue-music by Wolff from fixed versions.
(g3)/ Scheib, Christian: "Filter, Struktur, Speicher.
Improvisation: Aktuelle Momentaufnahme aus einer Zwischenwelt
in einer Zwischenzeit. Fallbeispiel Österreich", in: Neue
Zeitschrift für Musik, Heft 3 (Juli/August) p.18-21, 1999.
Article which inspired Peter Niklas Wilson by looking beyond the opposition of composition / improvisation.
(g3)/ Schwabe, Matthias: "Musik von der Quelle. Über
musikalische Qualität im Allgemeinen und improvisatorische
Qualität im besonderen", ringgespräch über
gruppenimprovisation LXVII, juni, 2001.
The author makes reflects thorougly on the issue of musical quality with empirical descriptions as the starting-point. Sounding together and playing together are concepts describing essential, specific characteristics according to him.
(g3)/ Schneider, Hans: "Klangnetze oder Kunst als Erfahrung
der Horizont-Erweiterung und der eigenen Veränderbarkeit", in:
Schneider, Hans (Hg.): Klangnetze: ein Versuch, die
Wirklichkeit mit den Ohren zu erfinden, Saarbrücken (Pfau)
Touches upon the issue of improvisors dealing with combining their own worlds with the multitude of what is outside of it.
(g3)/ Stangl, Burkhard: "Schall, Schrift und Schallschrift",
in: Schneider, Hans (Hg.): Klangnetze: ein Versuch, die
Wirklichkeit mit den Ohren zu erfinden, Saarbrücken (Pfau)
Deals with various aspects around writing, "orality" and media.
(g3)/ Stryi, Wolfgang: "Ein Garant für die Intensität.. Heiner Goebbels im Gespräch". Special issue Improvisation, MusikTexte 86/87 November, 2000.
/ von Kieseritzky, Herwig von: "Zwischen Alltagserfahrung
und ästhetischer Vermittlung. Musikalisch-szenische Konzepte -
Überlegungen und Beispiele". Bidrag til "Themenschwerpunkt:
Improvisieren nach Konzepten", ringgespräch über
gruppenimprovisation LXVIII, juni, 2002.
This is a good treatment of the intermidiary area between composition and quasi nothing - that is, agreements made by improvisors. An important issue which has not yet had the amount of focus it deserves.
(g3)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Rekonfigurationen. Komposition
und Improvisation", MusikTexte 86/87 november, 2000.
On the greater visibility of improvisation in concert life in recent years. Good, full discussion of form concepts, with interesting quotations from musicians. On well-known indetermination aesthetics within new music as a sign that opposites are becoming relative. A fine summing up of this authors' insights till now.
(g3)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Tendenz zur Kanonbildung",
ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXVII, juni, 2001.
An attempt to describe the norms and expectations concerning freely improvised music.
g3/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Von der sozialen Irrelevanz
improvisierter Musik" in: Jazz und Gesellschaft.
Sozialgeschichtliche Aspekte des Jazz (Knauer, Wolfram, hrsg.), 2002 (Part of a series: Darmstädter Beigträge zur Jazzforschung Bd.7).
Wilson discusses improvisors' notions of improvisation as having great innovative forces and the paradox that this music has no attention from society and the general public. Some typical audience prejudices of alleged "elitarism" and "abstract" proporties are discussed which mistake the anti-systematic and concrete here-and-now aspect, yet reveal that demand is placed on the listener: that of being totally present. Eclecticism makes, according to Wilson, the present situation maybe more problematic than the pioneer situation earlier. W. concludes that the process character of improvised music (which many improvisors think is important) should be reflected more in the music's presentation forms.
G3.1. IMPROVISED PERFORMANCE PRACTISE RELATED TO EXPERIMENTAL AND NEW WORKSSee also: Kopp(2010;E1); Solare (2008;E1); Jahn (2006;E2); Melvin (2010;G1.1); Polaschegg (2007;G1.1); Frisk (2008;G2.1); Nonnenmann (2004;G2.1); Toop (2008;G2.2); Wilson (2000;G3) - and in the "old" department before 2000: Müller (1994;g1.1)
G4 PSYCHOLOGYSee also: Bergstroem-Nielsen (2016;G3); Gustavsen (2010;G3); Wakao (2016;G3); Eikmeier (F2;2016A).
(g4)/ Eikmeier, Corinna: "Ist Spontaneität ein Reflex?" Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation LXXIII, April 2010. Thema: Improvisation zwischen Reflex und Reflexion. P.13-16.
Moshe Feldenkrais is the author of a training method aiming at freeing the body from inappropriate tension. According to him, spontaneity is characterised by the ability to act with ease and no inhibition. In human existence, not only reflexes proper but, to a high degree also, automated habits determine our behaviour. While a large number of habits are useful to us, it is however commonly found that some movements are not well adapted to their purpose and may involve unnescessary tension. There is a contradiction between what different muscle groups try to do, yet this state may easily remain unnoticed, because it has become automatic. The author quotes from Feldenkrais: "When you know what you are doing, you can do what you want". The reverse could also be true: "If you do not know what you are doing, you cannot do what you want".
It follows that musical habits should be examined consciously. This could happen through a self-questioning related to playing. As, however, situations in improvised music require fast action without time enough for always maintaining such attention and reflection, exercises are also recommended. These may be based on limitations, in order to learn to use a given situation with more invention and go beyond habits.
This article appeared in an issue of Ringgespräch with the title "Improvisation between reflex and reflection". See also Gagel (2010; G4) who, interestingly, arrives at a very similar conclusion on a different background.
(g4)/ Gagel, Reinhard: "Der schöpferische Moment: Alles ein Reflex oder...?" Ringgespräch über Gruppenimprovisation LXXIII, April 2010. Thema: Improvisation zwischen Reflex und Reflexion. P.9-12.
Improvisation functions well when the "self" is in charge, not rational consciousness. This "self" is a "subliminal consciousness". Rational consciousness is around half a second behind events before it can act, according to empirical measurement. Danish football player Michael Laudrup illustrated the point clearly when he commented on a chance he missed in a match: "I had too much time - I thought over what to do: I did not his properly". Another example is traditional Zen teaching which recommends "becoming empty" in order to act properly.
Rational consciousness may block the process, but it is also a nescessary partner. In order go make good collaboration possible, practising the awareness aspect by means of exercises is useful. The so-called "flow channel" describes a fruitful condition which provides the right amount of challenging while still avoiding to provoke blockings.
This article appeared in an issue of Ringgespräch having the general title "Improvisation between reflex and reflection". See also Eikmeier (2010; G4) who, interestingly, arrives at a very similar conclusion on a different background.
(g4)/ Gagel, Reinhard: Improvisation als soziale Kunst. Überlegungen zum künstlerischen und didaktischen Umgang mit improvisatorischer Kreativität. Mainz, Schott 2010. (=Üben und musizieren. Texte zur Instrumentalpädagogik).
This work, written as a PhD at Universität für Musik und Darstellende Kunst, Wien, Institut für Musikpädagogik, aims at unfolding a system theory view of improvised music. Inspired from biology, this describes characteristics of the working of complex systems, such as the phenomena of 'emergence' and an 'affect logic' (Ciompi) which regards emotions as a basis for how human consciousness focuses on groups of phenomena. It also discusses theoretical aspects of the social experience with improvised music and aspects of workshop building. This includes the use of improvisation exercises - work by Peter Hoch, Malcom Goldstein and Gertrud Meyer-Denkmann is quoted, as well as work by the author.
(g4)/ Nachmanovitch, Stephen: Free Play. Improvisation in Life and Art. N.Y. (Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, a member of Penguin Putnam Inc.), 1990. Swedish translation: Spela Fritt. Improvisation i liv och kunst, Göteborg (Ejeby) 2004. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(g4)/ Rzewski, Frederic: "Autonomie des Augenblicks. Eine
Theorie der Improvisation", MusikTexte 86/87 November, 2000.
The author associates improvisation and composition with short- and long term memory. He views it as having central importance that improvisation is open for the unexpected - a possibility for playing with turning the cause-effect relation upside down in a dynamic manner. Also the aspect of here-and-now is associated with the egalitarian aspect.
G5 MISCELLANEOUS WRITINGS
(g5)/ Bruun, Peter og Andersen, Frode: "Noderne på papiret er ikke musik", Dansk Musik Tidsskrift 4, november, 2000/01.
The line of thought may be summarised approximately like this: music is a rather autonomous thing and expresses time.
(g5)/ Gagel, Reihard; Joachim Zoepf (Hrsg): Können Improvisatoren tanzen?, (Wolke Verlag) 2003.
Documentation from the Symposium Improvisierte Musik in Köln, 21-23. January 2000. With a CD. Contributions by among others: Gagel, Felix Klopotek, Peter Niklas Wilson ("Rekonfigurationen", on improvisation and composition approaching each other institutionally and structurally), Johannes Fritsch ("Improvisation und Extase", comparing improvisation with myth and posing the question about what to do with negative music experiences) and a manifesto by Wolfgang Schliemann and Joachim Zopf, "Improvisierte Musik - Ars sui generis".
(g5)/ Gronemeyer, Gisela; Oehlschlägel, Reinhard (ed.): Special issue Improvisation, MusikTexte 86/87 November, 2000.
Also to be mentioned, in addition to those articles having separate entries: "Improvisation als Herausforderung. Der englische Saxophonist John Butcher" (Martin Pfleiderer) [mentions among other things Chris Burn's Ensemble]. - Other interviews deal with composers and their relation to improvisation: Anthony Coleman, Wolfgang Mitterer, Peter Eötvös, Héctor Moro and Bernd-Alois Zimmermann. Trescher's important analytical article about Cardew's Treatise was already included in my large bibliography as an exception, even if the date is later than 1999 (Trescher 2000;E2).
(g5)/ Hamel, Peter Michael: "Improvisationsformen. Zwischen Experiment und Werkanspruch, Heilkunde und Sozialarbeit, Volks- und Musikhochschule"in: MusikTexte 100, Februar, 2004.
Historic memories around "Freies Musikzentrum", established in München 1979. The author mentions among other things John Cage's critical attitude towards improvisation and the role of Tonius Timmermann for the development of music therapy.
(g5)/ Nanz, Dieter A.: "Improvisieren und Forschen. Gedanken an Rande der Basler Improvisationsmatineen", MusikTexte 114, August 2007, p.83-84.
Various reflections on the progress of history and on an arrangement seeking to combine playing of improvised music and reflecting on it.
(g5)/ Schwabe, Matthias: Interview med Michael Vetter,
ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXVII, juni, 2001.
Various information about an important German improvisor. Reflections about the specific quality of improvisation.
(g5)/ Steen-Andersen, Simon: "Improvisation. Uddrag af en
samtale mellem komponisten og guitaristen Christian Billian og
Simon Steen-Andersen", Autograf XI, 2, november, 2002.
Interview with some remarks on improvisation.
(g5)/ Wilson, Peter Niklas: "Rekonfigurationen. Komposition
und Improvisation", MusikTexte 86/87 November, 2000.
The author begins with statements about the greater visibility of improvised music in concert in recent years. There is a good, full discussion of form concepts, with interesting musicians' quotations. Also the overlapping of composers' improvisors' roles and their difference after all is treated here. This article is a very good summarizing of the insights till now of this author.
H. OTHER WRITINGS.
H1 GENERAL ACCOUNTS OF MUSIC HISTORY, DEALING THOROGHLY WITH THEMES CONCERNING NEW NOTATION FORMS AND/OR IMPROVISATION
(h1)/ Cox, Christoph; Warner, Daniel (ed): Audio Culture: readings in modern music, USA (Continuum) 2004.
This is a comprehensive sourcebook covering various aspects of experimental music, including improvised music.
A section on "The open work" features texts by composers John Cage, Earle Brown and Anthony Braxton as well as an interview with John Zorn. The three latter texts have not been described by this author before, and the availability of general remarks by Braxton about how to deal with his pieces is a valuable thing. The Zorn interview is an important one, maybe the most important one till now when it comes to information about the game pieces, since it deals in depth with the evolution of game piece composition over time. It also contains Zorn's declaration that he likes the game pieces to remain unpublished, since personal instruction is important - a decision which on one hand is not very helpful for those wishing to study alternatives to a music tradition being still so deeply fixed to traditional notation. On the other hand this might hopefully provoke some more people to create their own game pieces. Umberto Eco's influential "The poetics of the open work" is represented here, very relevant text to go with texts about open compositions.
In the department for "Improvised musics" one finds texts from Derek Bailey's classic book and texts by Ornette Coleman (documenting the role of free improvisation in his work) and Frederic Rzewski (on improvisation and memory). George Lewis' article on "Afrological and EUrological Perspectives" in improvised music after 1950 is also reprinted.
Other relevant texts to be mentioned in this specific context of improvised music and related could be ones by John Cage and Cornelius Cardew's "A Scratch Orchestra: Draft Constitution".
The chapters come with informative introductions to each chapter. Credit must go to the editors for putting the difference between indeterminacy and aleatory devices right in the introduction to "The open work" and for providing a reasonable, short article on "Visual sounds: Graphic scores". Each chapter is preceded by a collection of interesting quotations. There is also an index and a chronology.
With its compilation of essential and useful texts extending into experimental music generally (including recent developments of DJ culture and electronica) this book is a must for libraries and will be a most useful tool for students. It is also a much needed initiative in bridging the gap between American and European experimental / modern music history, taking in materials from both sides of the Atlantic. May more good discussion and work in this spirit follow...
H2.1 BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND DISCOGRAPHIC LITERATURE(H2.1)/See also: Borgo (2005;G1.1)
(h2.1)/ See also: Fischlin (2004;G3).
(h2.1)/See also: Rüdiger et al (2004;F2).
(h2.1)/See also: Roussel (2000; G2.3)
(h2.1)/ Lukoszevieze, Anton: "Die Welt als Musik durchwandern" - "Nahezu komplettes annotiertes Werkverzeichnis Philip Corner", MusikTexte 99, December 2003.
The last title contains a list of verbally and graphically notated works by this Fluxus-orientated composer which is comprehensive and annotated - among other things, instrumentation and notation are stated.
(h2.1)/ Martinelli, Fransesco: Joëlle Léandre Discography, Italy (Vivaldi e Bandecchi) 2002. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
(h2.1)/ Sounds99 - inlaybook to 3 CD release. Blue Tower Records,BTCD 09/10/11, 1999
Includes discographies of those musicians participating in this festival.
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
h2.1.1/ Steinauer, Mathias; Wohlhauser, René (ed.): Adesso. Zeitgenössische Musik verlagsunabhängiger Komponistinnen und Komponisten. Partituren - Tonträger - aufführungsmaterial. Katalog 1999/2001, 1999. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
H3.1 LITERATURE ON MUSIC THERAPY
(h3.1)/ Bruscia, Kenneth A.: "Response to the Forum Discussion of The "IAPs" In The Nordic Journal Web-site" in: Nordic Journal of Music Therapy vol. 11, nr. 1, 2002.
Various practical considerations.
h3.1/ Deuter, Martin: "Polaritätsverhältnisse. Zu einer musikalisch-psychologischen Benennung der Improvisation", in: Vermittlungen..musically speaking. Special issue of Einblicke (hrsg. BVM, Berufverband der Musiktherapeutinnen und Musiktherapeuten in Deutschland e.V.). Zum Improvisationsunterricht im Musiktherapiestudium / On Improvisation Training in Music Therapy Training, Heft 12, November, Manus, 2001. Please see the 1945-1999 bibliography in which this item has been listed as a special exception.
H3.2 WRITINGS RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF INTUITIVE MUSIC AND GRAPHIC NOTATION AT AALBORG UNIVERSITY AND OTHER PLACES
(h3.2)/ Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl: "Musicoterapia e improvisaciòn libre", Tavira (2a época), Revista de Ciencias de la Education No 19, Cadiz (Universidad de Cadiz) 2003.
(h3.2)/ Gilboa, Avi; Bensimon, Moshe: Putting clinical process
into image: a method for visual representation of music therapy
sessions, in: Music Therapy Perspectives 25, 1; Arts Module,
Authors' abstract: In many instances, music therapists are called upon to analyze their own work or to present it to others. However, the temporality and complexity of clinical-musical events generates challlenging difficulties in providing a quick overview of a single session. In the present paper, a method to visually map the events that occur in music therapy sessions is proposed, following in the footsteps of authors who have suggested graphical notation as a possible solution to the problem. The Music-therapy Analyzing Partitura (MAP) is used by the therapist to describe what happened in a session and is shared with colleagues who may read and discuss it. The establishment of a standard code is proposed, which is based on known principles of music notation and new simply designed symbols and icons. Two clinical sessions with a group are described and the advantages and disadvantages of the MAP are discussed.
(h3.2)/ Gilboa, Avi: Testing the MAP: a graphic method for
describing and analyzing music therapy sessions, The Arts in
Psychotherapy 34, 2007.
Authors' abstract: The music therapy analyzing partitura (MAP) is a method that was recently proposed to visually describe and analyze music therapy sessions. The main objective of this study was to examine the method and to see if it was in fact clear and usable to music therapists (MTs). Twenty-six experienced and inexperienced MTs were exposed to a MAP and to a written verbal description of the same session. Under a time limitation, they answered informative questions regarding the session and, in addition, indicated the potential of each of the descriptions to raise and analyze research questions. It was found that MTs could easily understand the MAP code. When using the MAP, they correctly answered significantly more questions in comparison with the verbal condition. MTs indicated that the MAP had better analyzing potential than the verbal description. Suggestions for future development of the MAP, as well as its possible implications to arts therapists at large, are discussed.
H4 MISCELLANEOUS OTHER WRITINGS
Note. In the large bibliography (1945-1999), this was a category also for various literature having been mentioned in the text - even including writings I would directly warn the reader against. In this 2000- list H4 is different: it deals solely with various literature which is directly relevant.
(h4)/ Gagel, Reinhard: Review of Rühle (2007;G4) in: ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXXII, april, 2008.
(h4)/ Gagel, Reinhard: Review of Rzewski (2007;G5) in: ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXXII, april, 2008.
(h4)/ Gronemeyer, Gisela; Oehlschlägel, Reinhard (hrsg): Frederic Rzewski. Unlogische Folgerungen. Schriften und Vorträge zu Improvisation, Komposition und Interpretation, Köln (Edition MusikTexte) 2007.
(h4)/ Christensen, Erik: "Overt and hidden processes in 20th
century music", in: Seibt, J. (ed.): Crossdisciplinary studies
in dynamic categories, Pr. in the Netherlands (Klüwer Academic
Describes two different versions of Variations II (1961) by Cage, thus exemplifying how different versions may be.
(h4)/ Christensen, Jean: "New Music of Denmark" in White, John
D. (ed.): New Music of the Nordic Countries, USA
(u.tr.)(Pendragon Press Musicological series)) 2002.
In addition to a biographically-oriented dealing with generations of individual composers, some pages deal with experimental tendencies, their organisations and their interaction with mainstream music life and its organistions.
(h4)/ Gagel, Reinhard: anm. af Wilson: Hear and Now,
ringgespräch über gruppenimprovisation LXVIII, juni, 2002.
Review of Wilson (1999;G1.1).
(h4)/ Mörchen, Raoul: "Facettenreiches Phänomen. Peter Niklas
Wilson in der "edition neue zeitschrift für musik"",
MusikTexte 99, Dezember, 2003.
Review of the book on reductionism by Wilson. At the back of the issue of MusikTexte in question there is also an advertisement from the publisher including this book.
(h4)/ Scheib, Christian: "Annäherung an das Utopische. Bücher
zur improvisierten Musik von Sabine Feisst und Peter Niklas
Wilson, MusikTexte 84, Mai 2000", 2000.
Review of Feisst (1997;G1.1) and Wilson (1999;G1.1). Provides characterisations of the two books and throws them into relief relating them to each other.
Note. Unlike in the 1945-99 bibliography which, even
on a modest scale, attempted to list varied selections, this
is just a residual category listing recordings mostly belonging to
some of the items above! The reader is thus referred to other sources - you may for instance consult
I1. VARIABLE WORKS AND MUSIC PLAYED FROM RECIPES
(i1)/ See also Collins (2001; H2.1).
(i1)/ Leukert, Bernd (ed.): Christian Wolff. Bread and Roses,
Wergo WER 6658 2 2003.
This CD contains 10 different, short interpretation of Wolff's "For 1, 2 or 3 People" and thus amply illustrated how versions may differ. Additionally, there is one long version of Edges. (See Wilson (2003;G2.5) and Wagner (2003;G2.5) for the contents of the booklet).
(i1)/ Tyrrestrup, Hans; Søegaard, Fredrik and "MusEXP":
Nocturnes Compositions 2 x 22. Includes a music CD, Jelling
(Academy of Music, Esbjerg) 2001.
Book with a series of pictures inspiring improvisations from simple instructions. Additionally, notations representing free fantasy variations over the sounding results have been added. (The additional information here has been gathered from music author Søegaard).
(k)/ Graphic Scores by Ichiyanagi Toshi January 16(Tues.)- 28(Sun.), 2001, Art Space G, Aichi Arts Center (Japan). In cooporation with KONDO Yasuyo. (http://www.aac.pref.aichi.jp/english/bunjyo/event/PReport-e/00/00-12gs.html). This item has been listed in the 1945-1999 bibliography as a special exception.
(k)/ Notations21: Breaking the boundaries. Chelsea Arts Museum October 2008. Curated by Theresa Sauer. This exhibition was realised in connection with the publishing of Sauer (2009;E1).
The catalogue consists of 12 pages (28 x 21 cm) and features mainly 3 concert programmes with notes and composer bios. Pieces are by composers featured in the book, apart from Means, David.
(k)/ Cox, Christopher: Every Sound You Can Imagine. Programme booklet for the exhibition at Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2008. ISBN 978-1-933619-15-6. Contains the article Cox (2008; E1). Subsequently shown 2009 at New Langton Arts, San Fransisco.
From the complete listing of works it appears that contents of the exhibition was mostly unpublished works, also some European. Both the "classic" period from the 1950s and on as well as recent decades, including many items after 2000, are represented.
(k)/ Notations21: Breaking the coundaries. May 13-31 2009. Hutchins Gallery, C.W.Post Campus, Long Island University, 720 Northern Blvd, Brookville NY. Curated by Theresa Sauer. Sauer. This exhibition was realised in connection with the publishing of Sauer (2009;E1).
The catalogue consists of 20 pages (28 x 21 cm) and features descriptions and notes on the exhibited works, with some illustrations. A number of Notations 21 composers participate as well as Thome, Joel and Chadabe, Joel.
(k)/ Notations21 scores. Picturing the Sounds: Dialects of Contemporary Composers. From October 7th 2010. The University of New Haven Seton Gallery in Dodds Hall, West Haven, CT 06516. Curated by Theresa Sauer and Christopher Reba. This exhibition was realised in connection with the publishing of Sauer (2009;E1).
The catalogue (14 x 21,5 cm, 12 pages) contains notes by the curators and a concert programme featuring music by Notations 21 composers, Mohammed Fairouz and Joel Chadabe, with notes and bios. Christoph Reba's note has an analytical viewpoint that focuses on what has been added to notation in the historical development: "However different these various notation systems may seem, taken together, they speak to the universality of musical expression and interpretation. The role of graphic notation in the world today is to broaden communication between composer, performer, and listener. When Western notation was first developed, the composer was concerned about creating a symbol to represent a sound, and in some sense musical notation is going back to its roots, but at the same time with an eye towards the future. Contemporary composers have seen many more possibilities. They have ideas about collaboration, intuition, imagination, improvisation, time and space and stretching the limits of what we can communicate in symbols."
(k)/ As a part of Festival Blurred Edges 2011 in Hamburg: Exhibition of graphic scores by Phil Corner, Nikolaus Gerszewski, Roman Haubenstock Ramati, Christoph Herndler. Opening concert with Von Eden Band playing TEXTURES by Nikolaus Gerszewski. Schute, Industriestrasse 125, Wilhelmsburg. 15. May 2011 (until?)
(k)/ 2011, 7-21st April. Window exhibition at American Book Center, Spui 12, Amsterdam Centrum, Netherlands. Book presentation during Gaudeamus Interpreters' Competition. Concerts with Notations 21 composers Keren Rosenbaum, John Kannenberg and Collin McRae in other venues.
(k)/ 2011, 19th June - 16th July. La Zonmé,7 bis rue des Combattants en Afrique du Nord
06000 Nice, France. "Supports d’attaches à sons d’attaques supposées". Une exposition centrée sur les sons fixés sur supports visuels et textuels. Part of the festival "L’Art contemporain et la Côte d’Azur - Un territoire pour l’expérimentation, 1951-2011"
Represented are, among others, Florence Cartoux, Eric Corbier, Yann Denais, Augustin Dupuy, Camille Giuglaris, Florian Gourio, Alexandra Guillot, Henrik, Bruno Lecoq, Thomas Lippens, Martin Mor, Gaël Navard, Aure Ola, Charlotte Pavanello, Pierre Paquette, Manuel Rosas, Jean-François Trubert.
(k)/ 2014, 22nd March – 5th April 2014, Library of Birmingham.
Represented composers/visual artists were: Robert Ashley, Cathy Berberian, Janet Boulton, Gavin Bryars, Earle Brown, Cornelius Cardew, Erik Christensen, Adam de la Cour, Lyell Cresswell, Brent Michael Davids, Luke Deane, Fred Frith, William Hellermann, Christopher Hobbs, Anton Lukoszevieze, Christian Marclay, René Mogensen, Claudia Molitor, Pauline Oliveiros, R. Murray Schafer, Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Henrik Rasmussen, Theresa Sauer, Elliott Sharp, Howard Skempton, Ismail Wadada Leo Smith, Maya Verlaak, Michael Wolters.
The exhibition also included postcard scores created by local people, under the guidance of composer Kirsty Devaney. A selection of these were performed. A performance, "Ringing out" by Beth Derbyshire and Andy Ingamells with audience participation was carried out 5 times. (A photo documentation with present author).
Also there were 15 short daily concerts played from works by: Lyell Cresswell, Halim El Dabh, Wadada Leo Smith, Gavin Bryars, Christopher Hobbs, Fred Frith, Theresa Sauer, Erik Christensen, Henrik Rasmussen, Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Anton Lukoszevieze, Janet Boulton, Cornelius Cardew, Pauline Oliveros, Herbert Brün, William Hellermann, René Mogensen.